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Ivers, J H and Larkan, F and Barry, J (2018) A longitudinal qualitative analysis of the lived experience of the recovery process in opioid-dependent patients post-detoxification. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , Early online , pp. 1-9.

Millar, Sean (2018) New estimates of problem opiate use in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 64, Winter 2018 .

Millar, Sean (2018) Post-detoxification outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 64, Winter 2018 , p. 13.

Lynn, Ena and Lyons, Suzi (2018) Drug-related deaths and deaths among drug users 2004–2015. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 64, Winter 2018 , pp. 4-6.

Ivers, Jo-Hanna H and Fitzgerald, Jacqueline and Whelan, Christopher and Sweeney, Brion and Keenan, Eamon and Fagan, Andrew and McMarrow, Jason and Meany, Jim and Barry, Joe and Frodl, Thomas (2018) Progressive white matter impairment as a predictor of outcome in a cohort of opioid-dependent patient's post-detoxification. Addiction Biology , 23 , (1) , pp. 304-312.

Carew, Anne Marie and Comiskey, Catherine (2018) Treatment for opioid use and outcomes in older adults: a systematic literature review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 182 , pp. 48-57.

Tobin, Helen and Klimas, Jan and Barry, Thomas and Egan, Mairead and Bury, Gerard (2017) Opiate use disorders and overdose: medical students' experiences, satisfaction with learning, and attitudes toward community naloxone provision. Addictive Behaviors , Early online .

Ivers, Jo-Hanna and Zgaga, Lina and Sweeney, Brion and Keenan, Eamon and Darker, Catherine and Smyth, Bobby P and Barry, Joe (2017) A naturalistic longitudinal analysis of post-detoxification outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. Drug and Alcohol Review , Early online .

Galvin, Brian (2017) European drug trends 2017. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 62, Summer 2017 , pp. 1-4.

Lyons, Suzi (2017) New clinical guidelines for opioid substitution treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 62, Summer 2017 , pp. 27-30.

Claffey, C and Crowley, Des and Maclachan, M and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2017) Exploring Irish Travellers' experiences of opioid agonist treatment: a phenomenological study. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 19 , (6) .

Crowley, Des and Cullen, Walter and Laird, Eamon and Lambert, John S and Mc Hugh, Tina and Murphy, Carol and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2017) Exploring patient characteristics and barriers to hepatitis C treatment in patients on opioid substitution treatment attending a community based fibro-scanning clinic. Journal of Translational Internal Medicine , 5 , (2) , pp. 112-119.

Corrigan, Desmond (2017) Concern increasing over the emergence of pregabalin as a drug of abuse. Irish Pharmacist , 3 , (18) , 20 p..

Latham, John (2017) Opioid substitution guide an invaluable resource. Forum , 34 , (3) , 7 p..

Lynn, Therese (2017) Launch of the Evaluation of the HSE Naloxone Demonstration Project. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 60, Winter 2017 , pp. 18-19.

Comiskey, Catherine and Milnes, Jennie and Daly, Maeve (2017) Parents who use drugs: the well-being of parent and child dyads among people receiving harm reduction interventions for opiate use. Journal of Substance Use , 22 , (2) , pp. 206-210.

Keegan, D and Crowley, Des and Laird, E and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2017) Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C viral infection amongst a cohort of Irish drug users attending a drug treatment centre for Agonist Opioid Treatment (AOT). Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 19 , (1) , pp. 45-55.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn and Bergin, Michael (2017) Buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of codeine dependence: a scoping review of clinical case presentations. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction , 15 , (1) , pp. 224-237.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Norman, Ian and Rich, Eileen and Bergin, Michael (2017) Experiences of codeine use, misuse and dependence: application of Liese and Franz's cognitive developmental model of substance abuse. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy , 45 , (3) , pp. 238-252.

Barry, T and Klimas, Jan and Tobin, Helen and Egan, Mairead and Bury, Gerard (2017) Opiate addiction and overdose: experiences, attitudes, and appetite for community naloxone provision. The British Journal of General Practice , 67 , (657) , e267-e273.

Hearne, Evelyn and Alves, Emanuele Amorim and Van Hout, Marie Claire and Grund, Jean-Paul C (2017) Home manufacture of drugs: an online investigation and a toxicological reality check of online discussions on drug chemistry. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 49 , (4) , pp. 279-288.

Bird, Sheila M and McAuley, Andrew and Perry, Samantha and Hunter, Carole (2016) Effectiveness of Scotland's national naloxone programme for reducing opioid-related deaths: a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison. Addiction , 111 , (5) , pp. 883-891.

Henihan, Anne Marie and McCombe, Geoff and Klimas, Jan and Swan, Davina and Leahy, Dorothy and Anderson, Rolande and Bury, Gerard and Dunne, Colum and Keenan, Eamon and Lambert, John and Maher, David and O'Gorman, Clodagh SM and O'Toole, Thomas P and Saunders, Jean and Shorter, Gillian W and Smyth, Bobby P and Kaner, Eileen and Cullen, Walter (2016) Feasibility of alcohol screening among patients receiving opioid treatment in primary care. BMC Family Practice , 17 , (153) .

Galvin, Brian (2016) European drug trends 2016. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 58, Summer 2016 , pp. 12-13.

Grehan, Martin (2016) Risk factors for death among MMT patients. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 57, Spring 2016 , pp. 5-6.

O'Neill, Derek (2016) Misuse and dependence on codeine-containing medicines. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 57, Spring 2016 , pp. 16-17.

Cannon, Aoife (2016) Take-home naloxone. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 57, Spring 2016 , pp. 22-23.

Hickman, Matthew and Macleod, John and Degenhardt, Louisa (2016) Commentary on Cousins et al. (2016): Accumulating evidence on risk of mortality on and off opioid substitution treatment. Addiction , 111 , (1) , pp. 83-84.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn (2016) Confessions of contemporary English opium-eaters: a netnographic study of consumer negotiation of over-the-counter morphine for misuse. Journal of Substance Use , 21 , (2) , pp. 141-152.

Cousins, Grainne and Boland, Fiona and Courtney, Brenda and Barry, Joseph and Lyons, Suzi and Fahey, Tom (2016) Risk of mortality on and off methadone substitution treatment in primary care: a national cohort study. Addiction , 111 , (1) , pp. 73-82.

Cooper, Janine A and Moriarty, Frank and Ryan, Cristín and Smith, Susan M and Bennett, Kathleen and Fahey, Tom and Wallace, Emma and Cahir, Caitriona and Williams, David and Teeling, Mary and Hughes, Carmel M (2016) Potentially inappropriate prescribing in two populations with differing socio-economic profiles: a cross-sectional database study using the PROMPT criteria. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 72 , (5) , pp. 583-591.

Comiskey, Catherine M and Snel, Anne (2016) Using client's routine urinalysis records from multiple treatment systems to model five-year opioid substitution treatment outcomes. Substance Use & Misuse , 51 , (4) , pp. 498-507.

Kinahan, J C and Surah, S and Keating, S and Bergin, C and Mulcahy, F and Lyons, F and Keenan, E (2016) Effect of integrating HIV and addiction care for non-engaging HIV-infected opiate-dependent patients. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 185 , (3) , pp. 623-628.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Delargy, Ide and Ryan, Gerry and Flanagan, Siobhan and Gallagher, Hugh (2016) Dependence on Over the Counter (OTC) codeine containing analgesics: treatment and recovery with buprenorphine naloxone. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction , 14 , (5) , pp. 873-883.

Singh, Sima and Vardhan, Harsh and Kotla, Niranjan G and Maddiboyina, Balaji and Sharma, Dinesh and Webster, Thomas J (2016) The role of surfactants in the formulation of elastic liposomal gels containing a synthetic opioid analgesic. International Journal of Nanomedicine , 11 , pp. 1475-82.

Calami, Alvise and Dowdall, Deirdre (2015) The challenge of opioid-induced hyperalgeisa. Forum , 32 , (11) , pp. 39-42.

McNamara, Sinead and Stokes, Siobhan and Kilduff, R and Shine, A (2015) Pregabalin abuse amongst opioid substitution treatment patients. Irish Medical Journal , 108 , (10) .

Truszkowska, Edyta and McCarron, Peter and Konovalov, Pavel and Galander, Tahir and Lyons, Suzi and Keenan, Eamon and Smyth, Bobby P (2015) Case-control study of risks and causes of death amongst opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance treatment. The Canadian Journal of Addiction , 6 , (3) , pp. 17-26.

Klimas, Jan and Egan, Mairead and Tobin, Helen and Coleman, Neil and Bury, Gerard (2015) Development and process evaluation of an educational intervention for overdose prevention and naloxone distribution by general practice trainees. BMC Medical Education , 15 , (206) .

Cahill, Kathleen and Shehab, Ruqaya Mohsen and Lowney, Aoife and McQuillan, Regina (2015) Addiction to transmucosal fentanyl: is it a cause for concern in cancer pain management? Palliative medicine , 29 , (9) , pp. 861-862.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn (2015) “Vintage Meds”: A netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum. Substance Use & Misuse , 50 , (5) , pp. 598-608.

Klimas, Jan and Muench, John and Wiest, Katharina and Croff, Raina and Rieckman, Traci and McCarty, Dennis (2015) Alcohol screening among opioid agonist patients in a primary care clinic and an opioid treatment program. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 47 , (1) , pp. 65-70.

Klimas, Jan and Heninan, Anne Marie and McCombe, Geoff and Swan, Davina and Anderson, Rolande and Bury, Gerard and Dunne, Colum and Keenan, Eamon and Saunders, Jean and Williams Shorter, Gillian and Smyth, Bobby P and Cullen, Walter (2015) Psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care settings (PINTA): baseline feasibility data. Journal of Dual Diagnosis , 11 , (2) , pp. 97-106.

Mounteney, Jane and Giraudon, Isabelle and Denissov, Gleb and Griffiths, Paul (2015) Fentanyls: are we missing the signs? Highly potent and on the rise in Europe. The International Journal of Drug Policy , 26 , (7) , pp. 626-631.

Galvin, Brian (2014) Annual review of the drug situation in Europe. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 50, Summer 2014 , pp. 12-13.

Lyons, Suzi (2014) Preventing opiate-related deaths in Ireland: the naloxone demonstration project. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 49, Spring 2014 , p. 13.

Degenhardt, Louisa and Charlson, Fiona and Mathers, Bradley and Hall, Wayne D and Flaxman, Abraham D and Johns, Nicole and Vos, Theo (2014) The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Addiction , Online .

Healy, D and English, F and Daniels, A and Ryan, CA (2014) Emergence of opiate-induced neonatal abstinence syndrome. Irish Medical Journal , 107 , (2) , p. 46.

Keane, Lisa and Ducray, Kevin and Smyth, Bobby P (2014) Psychological characteristics of heroin-dependent and non-opioid-substance-dependent adolescents in community drug treatment services. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse , 23 , (4) , p. 205.

Klimas, Jan and O'Reilly, Martin and Egan, Mairead and Tobin, Helen and Bury, Gerard (2014) Urban overdose hotspots: a 12-month prospective study in Dublin ambulance services. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine , 32 , (10) , pp. 1168-1173.

Griffin, Eve and Corcoran, Paul and Cassidy, Linda and O'Carroll, Amanda and Perry, Ivan J and Bonner, Brendan (2014) Characteristics of hospital-treated intentional drug overdose in Ireland and Northern Ireland. BMJ Open , 4 , (7) , e005557.

Randall, C and Crane, J (2014) Tramadol deaths in Northern Ireland: a review of cases from 1996 to 2012. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine , 23 , pp. 32-36.

Killian, Lyndsey M and Docherty, James R (2014) Cardiovascular stimulant actions of bupropion in comparison to cocaine in the rat. European Journal of Pharmacology , 735 , pp. 32-7.

Lyons, Suzi (2013) Suboxone feasibility study evaluated. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 47, Autumn 2013 , pp. 19-22.

Lyons, Suzi (2013) Proposed regulatory framework for buprenorphine/naloxone products in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 47, Autumn 2013 , pp. 22-23.

Comiskey, Catherine (2013) A 3 year national longitudinal study comparing drug treatment outcomes for opioid users with and without children in their custodial care at intake. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 44 , (1) , pp. 90-96.

Balding, Lucy (2013) The World Health Organisation analgesic ladder: its place in modern Irish medical practice. Irish Medical Journal , 106 , (4) .

Galvin, Brian (2013) Annual review of the drug situation in Europe. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 46, Summer 2013 , pp. 5-6.

Murphy, Emma and Comiskey, Catherine (2013) Using chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling to identify groups of methadone treatment clients experiencing significantly poorer treatment outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 45 , (4) , pp. 343-349.

Carew, Anne Marie and Cafferty, Siobhan and Long, Jean and Bellerose, Delphine and Lyons, Suzi (2013) Travellers accessing addiction services in Ireland (2007 to 2010): analysis of routine surveillance data. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse , 12 , (4) , pp. 339-335.

Martin, Marissa and Klimas, Jan and Dunne, Colum and O'Connor, William T and O'Dwyer, Patrick and Smyth, Bobby P and Cullen, Walter (2013) Genetic pre-determinants of concurrent alcohol and opioid dependence: a critical review. OA Alcohol , 1 , (2) , 18p..

Martyn, Michelle (2012) Drug and alcohol misuse among adult offenders on probation supervision: Findings from the drugs and alcohol survey 2011. Irish Probation Journal , 9 .

Connolly, Johnny and Lyons, Suzi (2012) Drugnet digest. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 42, Summer 2012 , p. 8.

Darker, Catherine D and Sweeney, Brion and El Hassan, Haytham O and Smyth, Bobby P and Ivers, Jo-Hanna H and Barry, Joseph (2012) Brief interventions are effective in reducing alcohol consumption in opiate-dependent methadone-maintained patients: Results from an implementation study. Drug and Alcohol Review , 31 , (3) , pp. 348-356.

Comiskey, Catherine and Stapleton, Robert and Kelly, Paul (2012) Ongoing cocaine and benzodiazepine use: effects on acquisitive crime committal rates amongst opiate users in treatment. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy , 19 , (5) , pp. 406-414.

Connolly, Johnny and Lyons, Suzi (2012) Addendum to best practice guidelines on treatment for opiate users. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 42, Summer 2012 , p. 8.

Prinsloo, Bernice and Parr, Catherine and Fenton, Joanne (2012) Mental illness among the homeless: prevalence study in a Dublin homeless hostel. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 29 , (1) , pp. 22-26.

Mullen, Louise and Barry, Joseph and Long, Jean and Keenan, Eamon and Mulholland, Deirdre and Grogan, Loretto and Delargy, Ide (2012) A national study of the retention of Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse , 38 , (6) , pp. 551-558.

Long, Jean and Horgan, Justine (2012) Drug use among the general population, by regional drugs task force area. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 43, Autumn 2012 , pp. 24-27.

McDermott, Cian and Collins, Niamh C. (2012) Prehospital medication administration: a randomised study comparing intranasal and intravenous routes. Emergency Medicine International , 2012 .

Ducray, Kevin and Darker, Catherine D and Smyth, Bobby P (2012) Situational and psycho-social factors associated with relapse following residential detoxification in a population of Irish opioid dependent patients. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 29 , (2) , pp. 72-79.

Galbraith, JG and Butler, JS and McGreal, GT (2011) Opioid toxicity as a cause of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. American Journal of Emergency Medicine , 29 , (2) , p. 239.

Kermode, Michelle and Crofts, Nick and Kumar, Suresh and Dorabjee, Jimmy (2011) Opioid substitution therapy in resource-poor settings. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 89 , p. 243.

Lyons, Suzi (2011) Treated opiate users: alcohol use and treatment outcomes. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 37, Spring 2011 , p. 24.

Long, Jean (2011) Maternal and neonatal health among opiate users. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 38, Summer 2011 , pp. 18-19.

Lyons, Suzi (2011) Review of treatment for over-the-counter opiate misuse. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 38, Summer 2011 , p. 19.

Rowley, Dominic and McLean, Sarah and O'Gorman, Aisling and Ryan, Karen and McQuillan, Regina (2011) Review of cancer pain management in patients receiving maintenance methadone therapy. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine , 28 , (3) , pp. 183-187.

Dempsey, Orla and Comiskey, Catherine (2011) Estimating the incidence of hidden, untreated opiate use. Mathematical Population Studies , 18 , (3) , pp. 172-188.

Mullen, Louise and Keenan, Eamon and Barry, Joseph and Long, Jean and Mulholland, Deirdre and Grogan, Loretto and Delargy, Ide (2010) Factors predicting completion in a cohort of opiate users entering a detoxification programme. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 179 , pp. 569-573.

Stapleton, RD and Comiskey, Catherine (2010) Alcohol usage and associated treatment outcomes for opiate users entering treatment in Ireland. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 107 , (1) , pp. 56-61.

Long, Jean and Lyons, Suzi (2010) Problem opiate use in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 32, Winter 2009 , pp. 11-14.

Lyons, Suzi (2010) Lapse and relapse following inpatient treatment of opiate dependence. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 35, Autumn 2010 , pp. 21-22.

Comiskey, Catherine and Stapleton, Robert (2010) Treatment pathways and longitudinal outcomes for opiate users: Implications for treatment policy and planning. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy , 17 , (6) , pp. 707-717.

Thekiso, Thekiso B and Farren, Conor Kevin (2010) ‘Over the counter’ (OTC) opiate abuse treatment. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 27 , (4) , pp. 189-191.

Carew, Anne Marie and Bellerose, Delphine (2009) Treated problem cocaine and opiate use, 2002–2007. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 31, Autumn 2009 , pp. 10-11.

Collins, Ruth and Boggs, Bob and Taggart, Noel and Kelly, Martin and Drillington, Aileen and Swanton, Ivy and Patterson, Diane (2009) Efficacy of treatment in an opioid -dependent population group using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool. The Ulster Medical Journal , 78 , (1) , pp. 21-5.

Carson, Raymond and Jacob, P and McQuillan, Regina (2009) Towards safer use of opioids. Irish Medical Journal , 102 , (8) .

Collins, Ruth and Ewing, Derek and Boggs, Bob and Taggart, Noel and Drillingcourt, Aileen and Kelly, Martin and Patterson, Diane (2009) Opiate substitution prescribing in Belfast – two year follow up study. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 26 , (4) , pp. 183-186.

Long, Jean (2008) ROSIE study shows positive impact of opiate treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 28, Winter 2008 , pp. 11-12.

Saris, A. Jamie (2008) An uncertain dominion: Irish psychiatry, methadone, and the treatment of opiate abuse. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry , 32 , (2) , pp. 259-77.

Fagan, John and Naughton, Leena and Smyth, Bobby P (2008) Opiate-dependent adolescents in Ireland: a descriptive study at treatment entry. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 25 , (2) , pp. 46-51.

Whitty, M and O'Connor, JJ (2007) Opiate dependence and pregnancy: 20-year follow-up study. Psychiatric Bulletin , 31 , pp. 450-453.

Bannan, Noreen and Rooney, S and O'Connor, JJ (2007) Zopiclone misuse: an update from Dublin. Drug and Alcohol Review , 26 , (1) , 83 -85.

Connolly, Dominic and McElrath, Karen (2007) Nalbuphine (Nubain): Non-prescribed use, injecting, and risk behaviors for bloodborne viruses. Contemporary Drug Problems , 33 , (2) , pp. 321-340.

Cox, Gemma and Comiskey, Catherine (2007) Characteristics of opiate users presenting for a new treatment episode: Baseline data from the national drug treatment outcome study in Ireland (ROSIE). Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 14 , (3) , 217- 230.

Comiskey, Catherine and Saris, A. Jamie and Pugh, Julian (2007) Estimating the prevalence of opiate use in Ireland and the implications for the criminal justice system. Probation Journal , 54 , (1) , pp. 22-35.

Hogan, Diane (2007) The impact of opiate dependence on parenting processes: contextual, physiological and psychological factors. Addiction Research & Theory , 15 , (6) , pp. 617-635.

O'Domhnail, Sean and O'Keefe, Declan and Malone, Kevin (2006) Drug diversion of oxycontin in chronic pain syndrome. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 23 , (3) , pp. 118-120.

Smyth, Bobby P and Barry, Joseph and Lane, Alison and Cotter, Amanda and O'Neill, M and Quinn, Catherine and Keenan, Eamon (2005) In-patient treatment of opiate dependence: medium-term follow-up outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry , 187 , pp. 360-365.

Kelleher, MJ and McKeown, PJ and O'Gara, C and Keaney, F and Farrell, Michael and Strang, John (2005) Dying for heroin: the increasing opioid related mortality in the Republic of Ireland. European Journal of Public Health , 15 , (6) , pp. 589-592.

Bannan, Noreen and Rooney, S and Maguire, Richard and Moran, C and Dowling, Mark and O'Connor, JJ (2005) Zopiclone misuse on a methadone maintenance programme. Irish Psychiatrist , 6 , (5) , pp. 201-206.

Bolger, Anne (2005) Opiate overdose. Irish Association of Alcohol and Addiction Counsellors, Newsletter , 32 , pp. 11-13.

Williams, Hugh (2005) Service response to benzodiazepine use in opiate addicts: a national postal survey. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 22 , (1) , pp. 15-18.

Long, Jean (2004) Lofexidine and naloxone in the management of opiate dependence: increasing choice. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 10, March 2004 , p. 11.

Scully, Mike and Geoghegan, Noreen and Corcoran, Paul and Tiernan, Marika and Keenan, Eamon (2004) Specialized drug liaison midwife services for pregnant opioid dependent women in Dublin, Ireland. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 26 , (1) , pp. 27-33.

Hogan, Diane (2003) Parenting beliefs and practices of opiate addicted parents: concealment and taboo. European Addiction Research , 9 , (3) , pp. 113-119.

Choi, YH and Comiskey, Catherine (2003) Methods for providing the first prevalence estimates of opiate use in Western Australia. International Journal of Drug Policy , 14 , (4) , pp. 297-305.

Fleming, Glenda F and McElnay, James C and Hughes, Carmel M (2003) The separation of codeine from nonprescription combination analgesic products. Substance Use & Misuse , 38 , (9) , pp. 1217-1226.

Barry, Joseph (2002) Policy response to opioid misuse in Dublin. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health , 56 , (1) , pp. 6-7.

Kavanagh, PV and Dunne, J and Feely, John and Maguire, Richard and Corrigan, Desmond and Keating, JJ and Meegan, MJ and Clancy, JM and Burdett, J (2001) Phenylalkylamine abuse among opiate addicts attending a methadone treatment programme in the Republic of Ireland. Addiction Biology , 6 , (2) , pp. 177-181.

Ward, Mary and Barry, Joseph (2001) Opiate-related deaths in Dublin. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 170 , (1) , pp. 35-7.

Gervin, Maurice and Hughes, Rita and Bamford, L and Smyth, Bobby P and Keenan, Eamon (2001) Heroin smoking by 'chasing the dragon' in young opiate users in Ireland. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 20 , (4) , pp. 297-300.

Comiskey, Catherine (2001) Methods for estimating prevalence of opiate use as an aid to policy and planning. Substance Use & Misuse , 36 , (1&2) , pp. 131-150.

Comiskey, Catherine and Barry, Joseph (2001) A capture-recapture study of the prevalence and implications of opiate use in Dublin. European Journal of Public Health , 11 , (2) , pp. 198-200.

Fitzgerald, Michael and Barry, Joseph and O'Sullivan, P and Thornton, Lelia (2001) Blood-borne infections in Dublin's opiate users. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 170 , (1) , pp. 32-34.

Rooney, S and Kelly, Grainne and Bamford, L and Sloan, D and O'Connor, JJ (1999) Co-abuse of opiates and benzodiazepines. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 168 , (1) , pp. 36-41.

Smyth, Bobby P and McMahon, Julie and O'Connor, JJ and Ryan, Jim (1999) The use of primary care services by opiate-dependant injecting drug users in the era of 'shared care'. European Journal of General Practice , 5 , pp. 143-148.

Browne, R and Sloan, D and Fahy, S and Keating, Shay and Moran, C and O'Connor, JJ (1998) Detection of benzodiazepine abuse in opiate addicts. Irish Medical Journal , 91 , (1) , pp. 18-19.

Keenan, Eamon and Dorman, Arthur and O'Connor, John J (1993) Six year follow up of forty five pregnant opiate addicts. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 162 , (7) , pp. 252-255.

Dean, Geoffrey and O'Hare, Aileen and O'Connor, Aideen and Kelly, Michael G and Kelly, Grainne (1985) The opiate epidemic in Dublin 1979-1983. Irish Medical Journal , 78 , (4) , pp. 107-110.

Kelly, Michael G (1972) Misuse of a morphine alternative (Diconal). Journal of the Irish Medical Association , 65 , (16) , pp. 414-415.

News

[Evening Echo] , McGuinness, Grainne Cork opioid ‘epidemic’. (06 Apr 2018)

[Medical Independent] 40 babies admitted for drug withdrawal treatment. (08 Feb 2018)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor ‘Broken’ health care system to blame for huge rise in opioid use, say GPs. (05 Feb 2018)

[Independent.ie] , Horan, Niamh Antidote action plan to tackle drug more deadly than heroin. (29 Jan 2018)

Associated Press. [Independent.ie] US should not blame China for opioids crisis, says top official. (28 Dec 2017)

[Department of Health] Minister Byrne welcomes results of study on problem opiate use in Ireland highlighting a reduction in the number of young people commencing opiate use. (22 Dec 2017)

[Health Research Board] Health Research Board publish latest drug-related deaths figures. (12 Dec 2017)

[EMCDDA] Furanylfentanyl to be placed under control across the EU. (15 Nov 2017)

[Independent.ie] , Calder, Simon As tourist faces possible death penalty over painkillers, these are the medicines that could get you jailed abroad. (06 Nov 2017)

Press Association. [Independent.ie] Donald Trump declares US opioid crisis a nationwide emergency. (27 Oct 2017)

[RTE News] Special report: The US opioid epidemic. (20 Oct 2017)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Leonard, Victoria Drug Fentanyl 100 times more powerful than morphine is killer, warns Northern Ireland coroner. (22 Sep 2017)

[Irish Medical Times] , Mudiwa, Lloyd Fully managing north inner city Dublin’s opioid epidemic. (08 Sep 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Hennessy, Michelle Scientists are using painkiller-addicted fish to develop new treatments for addicts. (27 Aug 2017)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Fears that potent drug fentanyl may take hold in Ireland. (08 Aug 2017)

[Irish Times] , Breslin, John Narcan: The Irish weapon in America’s drugs war. (08 Aug 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Duffy, Ronan Calls for a heroin 'overdose antidote' to be made more available to addicts' families. (25 Jul 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Ireland's drug problem: rise of killer synthetic opioids. (07 Jun 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Ni Aodha, Grainne Drug 100 times more potent than morphine being mixed with heroin and cocaine. (31 May 2017)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Forensic scientists detect 27 new recreational drugs. (17 May 2017)

[Irish Times] , Clarke, Vivienne More people dying from opioid overdoses than crashes. (12 May 2017)

[Health Research Board] HRB publishes latest figures on treated drug use in Ireland 2009 – 2015. (11 May 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Halpin, Hayley The number of people seeking treatment over cocaine use at highest since 2010. (11 May 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Injecting centre reports ‘off the mark’ says senior gardaí. (06 Feb 2017)

[United Nations Information Service] International Narcotics Control Board recommends international control of two fentanyl precursors. (02 Feb 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire Headshops may have gone away but deadly ‘designer’ drugs are still easily available. (19 Jan 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Ryan, Orla Gardaí given new powers to test drivers for drugs at roadside. (21 Dec 2016)

[Health Research Board] Health Research Board publish latest drug-related deaths figures. (13 Dec 2016)

[The Irish News] , Madden, Andrew Major hike in people given emergency help for heroin overdose with Naloxone drug [Northern Ireland]. (10 Oct 2016)

[Irish Mirror] , Barrie, Joshua The prescription drug killing nearly as many people as cocaine. (07 Oct 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , Ring, Evelyn Awareness campaign about lethal drug 600 times stronger than morphine. (30 Jul 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Gardaí and health officials brace for more deaths from synthetic heroin. (29 Jul 2016)

[thejournal.ie] Heroin deaths on the rise in Ireland for the first time in four years. (14 Dec 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Baker, Noel Clinic implants State’s first opiate ‘blocker’. (06 Sep 2015)

[thejournal.ie] Behind every overdose there is a family that is suffering. (31 Aug 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Shanahan, Catherine Third of students use legal drugs to ‘get high’. (28 Aug 2015)

[Medical Independent] , Cahill, Niamh Students using prescription medications to ‘get high’. (27 Aug 2015)

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[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Opiate death risk warning. (25 Aug 2015)

[Irish Medical Times] European opioid users are ‘ageing cohort’. (11 Jun 2015)

[Irish Medical Times] ED interventions can improve treatment for opioid dependence. (12 May 2015)

[Irish Medical Times] , Culliton, Gary Opioid antagonist project planned. (29 Jan 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , McDonald, Brian Treatment for ‘benzos’ addiction soars. (29 Aug 2014)

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[Irish Medical Times] , Culliton, Gary Synthetic drugs problem ‘complex’. (12 Jun 2014)

[Health Research Board] New report reveals the latest drug trends in Europe: HRB compares situation in Ireland with European findings. (27 May 2014)

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Report

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Health Research Board. (2017) National Drug-Related Deaths Index 2004 to 2015 data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Health Research Board. (2017) Drug treatment in Ireland 2009-2015. Dublin: Health Research Board.

Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. (2017) Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS) 2017. Year 2. Dublin: Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force.

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - treatment. Dublin: Health Research Board.

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - drugs. Dublin: Health Research Board.

Health Service Executive. (2016) Clinical guidelines for opioid substitution treatment. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. (2016) Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS) 2016. Dublin: Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2015) Drug money: the illicit proceeds of opiates trafficked on the Balkan route. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Corrigan, Deirdre (2015) Statistics from the Northern Ireland drug misuse database: 1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.

Health Service Executive. (2015) Health service performance report March 2015. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Health Service Executive. (2015) Health service performance report January 2015. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

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Health Service Executive. (2015) Health services performance assurance report December 2014. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Keane, Martin and McAleenan, Gerry and Barry, Joseph (2014) Addiction recovery: a contagious paradigm! A case for the re-orientation of drug treatment services and rehabilitation services in Ireland. Dublin: Soilse.

Drummond, Anne and Codd, Mary and Donnelly, N and McCausland, D and Mehegan, J and Daly, L and Kelleher, Cecily (2014) Study on the prevalence of drug use,including intravenous drug use, and blood-borne viruses among the Irish prisoner population. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

Hay, Gordon and Rael dos Santos, Anderson and Worsley, Joanne (2014) UK: Estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use, 2011/12: Sweep 8 report. London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. (2014) Statistics from the Northern Ireland drug misuse database: 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2014) Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment, EMCDDA Papers. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Create Consultancy. Fitzgerald, Niamh (2013) Evaluation of suboxone feasibility study in Ireland. Dublin: Department of Health.

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Pilling, Stephen and Hardy, Robert (2013) Review of the Dublin North City and County addiction service. Dublin: Psychological Interventions Research Centre and University College London.

Gesundheit Österreich Forschungs- und Planungs GmbH, Sogeti. Busch, Martin and Grabenhofer-Efferth, Alexander and Wiegl, Marion and Wirl, Charlotte (2013) Report on the current state of play of the 2003 Council Recommendation on the prevention and reduction of health-related harm, associated with drug dependence, in the EU and candidate countries. Vienna: European Commission.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2012) 2012 Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Martyn, Michelle (2012) Drug and alcohol misuse among adult offenders. Findings from the drugs and alcohol survey 2011. Meath: Probation Service.

International Narcotics Control Board. (2012) Narcotic drugs. Austria: International Narcotics Control Board.

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Frisher, Martin and Baldacchino, Alex and Crome, Ilana and Bloor, Roger (2012) Preventing opioid overdoses in Europe: a critical assessment of known risk factors and preventative measures. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

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Hay, Gordon and Gannon, Maria and Casey, Jane and Millar, Tim (2011) Estimates of the Prevalence of Opiate Use and/or Crack Cocaine Use, 2009/10: Sweep 6 report. London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

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Health Service Executive. Social Inclusion Unit. Farrell, Michael and Barry, Joseph (2010) The introduction of the opioid treatment protocol. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs. Kelly, Alan and Teljeur, Conor and Carvalho, Marlen (2009) Prevalence of opiate use in Ireland 2006: a 3-Source capture recapture study. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Health Research Board. Alcohol and Drug Research Unit. Carew, Anne Marie and Bellerose, Delphine and Lyons, Suzi and Long, Jean (2009) Trends in treated problem opiate use in Ireland, 2002 to 2007. HRB Trends Series 7. Dublin: Health Research Board.

Health Service Executive South. O'Mahony Carey, Sinead (2008) A guide to substance misuse for medical professionals. Tipperary: Health Service Executive.

National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics. (2007) Economic evaluation of the use of Suboxone for opiate addiction. Dublin: National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics.

Irish College of General Practitioners. (2003) Working with opiate users in community based primary care. Dublin: Irish College of General Practitioners.

Kelly, Alan and Carvalho, Marlen and Teljeur, Conor (2003) A 3-source capture recapture study of the prevalence of opiate use in Ireland 2000 to 2001: key findings summary tables. Dublin: Department of Community Health & General Practice, Trinity College Dublin.

Furey, Maeve and Browne, Colm (2003) Opiate use and related criminal activity in Ireland 2000 & 2001. Templemore: Garda Research Unit.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs, Trinity College Dublin. Department of Community Health and General Practice. Small Area Research Unit. Kelly, Alan and Carvalho, Marlen and Teljeur, Conor (2003) Prevalence of opiate use in Ireland 2000-2001: a 3-source capture recapture study. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs.

Simoens, Steven and Matheson, Catriona and Inkster, Karen and Ludbrook, Anne and Bond, Christine (2002) The effectiveness of treatment for opiate dependent drug users: an international systematic review of the evidence. [Edinburgh]: Substance Misuse Division, Scottish Executive.

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National Medicines Information Centre. (2002) Report to the National Advisory Committee on Drugs on "use of lofexidine in the management of opiate dependence syndrome". Dublin: Stationery Office.

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Coid, Jeremy and Carvell, Andrea and Kittler, Zelpha and Healey, Andrew and Henderson, Juliet (2000) Opiates, criminal behaviour, and methadone treatment. London: Home Office. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Verster, Annette and Buning, Ernst (2000) Methadone guidelines. Amsterdam: Euro-Methwork.

Dorman, Peter and Jones, Lynsey (1999) Rehabilitation research project: towards a blueprint for opiate addicts in the Eastern Health Board area. (Unpublished) Dublin: Eastern Health Board.

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Evidence resource

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2018) Effectiveness of injectable extended-release naltrexone vs daily buprenorphine–naloxone for opioid dependence: A randomized clinical noninferiority trial. London: Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings Bulletin (15 March 2018) 5 p.

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Neale, Joanne and Tompkins, Charlotte NE and McDonald, Rebecca and Strang, John . (2018) Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study. Wiley. Addiction, Early online DOI: 10.1111/add.14163

Brat, Gabriel A and Agniel, Denis and Beam, Andrew and Yorkgitis, Brian and Bicket, Mark and Homer, Mark and Fox, Kathe P and Knecht, Daniel B and McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl N and Palmer, Nathan and Kohane, Issac [BMJ Open] . (2018) Postsurgical prescriptions for opioid naive patients and association with overdose and misuse: retrospective cohort study. BMJ Publishing. BMJ Open, 360 (j5790) doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j5790

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Platt, Lucy and Reed, Jennifer and Minozzi, Silvia and Vickerman, Peter and Hagan, Holly and French, Clare and Jordon, Ashley and Degenhardt, Louisa and Hope, Vivian and Hutchinson, Sharon and Maher, Lisa and Palmateer, Norah E and Taylor, Avril and Hickman, Matthew [The Cochrane Library] . (2016) Effectiveness of needle/syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy in preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012021

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Faculty of Pain Medicine of the Royal College of Anaesthetists; the Royal College of General Practitioners; and the British Pain Society. [National Treatment Agency (UK)] (2013) Managing persistent pain in secure settings. London: Public Health England. (14 p.)

Pani, Pier Paolo and Trogu, Emanuela and Maremmani, Icro and Pacini, Matteo [The Cochrane Library] . (2013) QTc interval screening for cardiac risk in methadone treatment of opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6) Art. No.: CD008939. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008939.pub2

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin [Mortality profile of naltrexone implants]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 09 Aug

Recovery Orientated Drug Treatment Expert Group. [National Treatment Agency (UK)] (2012) Medications in recovery. Re-orientating drug dependence treatment. London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. 32 p.

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin prescribing]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 15 Jun

[EMCDDA] (2012) Best Practice Portal: Harm reduction interventions for opioid injectors. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. [CADTH] (2012) Opioid management practices for the prevention of drug diversion and misuse: a review of the clinical evidence and guidelines. Ottawa: CADTH. 21 p. Rapid response review

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin assisted treatment]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 19 Jan

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. [EMCDDA] (2012) Legal topic overviews: classification of controlled drugs. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

[EMCDDA] (2012) Treatment options for opioid users. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Lingford-Hughes, AR and Welch, S and Peters, L and Nutt, DJ [British Association for Psychopharmacology] . (2012) BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP. Sage. Journal of Psychopharmacology 54 p. DOI: 10.1177/0269881112444324

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. [Home Office UK] (2012) ACMD advice on O-desmethyltramadol. London: Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. 2 p.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. [EMCDDA] (2012) EMCDDA Trendspotter study on fentanyl in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. 14 p.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. [SAMHSA, US] (2012) Clinical drug testing in primary care. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 96 p. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 30

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. [SAMHSA, US] (2012) An introduction to extended-release injectable naltrexone for the treatment of people with opioid dependence. Dublin, Ohio: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA Advisory, 11 (1) 8 p.

Ferri, Marica and Davoli, Marina and Perucci, Carlo A [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin‐dependent individuals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003410.pub4

Minozzi, Silvia and Amato, Laura and Vecchi, Simona and Davoli, Marina and Kirchmayer, Ursula and Verster, Annette [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Oral naltrexone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4) Art. No.: CD001333. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001333.pub4

Gowing, Linda and Farrell, Michael and Bornemann, Reinhard and Sullivan, Lynn E and Ali, Robert [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Oral substitution treatment of injecting opioid users for prevention of HIV infection. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004145.pub3

Amato, Laura and Minozzi, Silvia and Davoli, Marina and Vecchi, Simona [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments versus pharmacological treatments for opioid detoxification. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005031.pub4

Amato, Laura and Minozzi, Silvia and Davoli, Marina and Vecchi, Simona and Ferri, Marica and Mayet, Soraya [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Psychosocial combined with agonist maintenance treatments versus agonist maintenance treatments alone for treatment of opioid dependence. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10) Art. No.: CD004147. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004147.pub4

Ford, Chris and Halliday, Kate and Lawson, Euan and Browne, Elsa [SMMGP] . (2011) Guidance for the use of substitute prescribing in the treatment of opioid dependence in primary care. London: RCGP Substance Misuse Unit; RCGP Sex, Drugs and HIV Group; Substance Misuse Management in General Practice; The Alliance. 48 p.

Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. [National Treatment Agency (UK)] (2011) A summary of the health harms of drugs. London: Department of Health & National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. 81 p.

[Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health] (2011) Suboxone for short-term detoxification: a review of the clinical evidence. Ottowa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Handford, Curtis and Kahan, Meldon and Srivastava, Anita and Cirone, Sharon and Palda, Valerie [Centre for Addiction and Mental health] . (2011) Buprenorphine/Naloxone for opioid dependence: clinical practice guideline. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental health. 153 p.

UNODC Drug Prevention and Health Branch. [UNODC] (2011) Ensuring availability of controlled medications for the relief of pain and preventing diversion and abuse: Striking the right balance to achieve the optimal public health outcome. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 24 p.

Gowing, Linda and Ali, Robert and White, Jason M [The Cochrane Library] . (2010) Opioid antagonists under heavy sedation or anaesthesia for opioid withdrawal. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002022.pub3

Mayet, Soraya and Farrell, Michael and Mani, Sivaguru G [The Cochrane Library] . (2010) Opioid agonist maintenance for opioid dependent patients in prison. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1)

Pani, Pier Paolo and Vacca, Rosangela and Trogu, Emanuela and Amato, Laura and Davoli, Marina [The Cochrane Library] . (2010) Pharmacological treatment for depression during opioid agonist treatment for opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008373.pub2

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. [EMCDDA] (2010) EMCDDA manuals no 6. Guidelines for testing HIV, viral hepatitis and other infections in injecting drug users. A manual for provider-initiated voluntary medical examination, testing and counselling. Luxembourg: The Publications Office of the European Union. 75 p.

Rosner, Susanne and Hackl-Herrwerth, Andrea and Leucht, Stefan and Vecchi, Simona and Srisurapanont, Manit and Soyka, Michael [The Cochrane Library] . (2010) Opioid antagonists for alcohol dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001867.pub3

NIDA-SAMHSA Blending Initiative. [Addiction Technology Transfer Research Center] (2010) Short-term opioid withdrawal using buprenorphine: findings and strategies from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study. Bethesda, MD: NIDA-SAMHSA Blending Initiative. 72 p.

Mattick, Richard P and Breen, Courtney and Kimber, Jo and Davoli, Marina [The Cochrane Library] . (2009) Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002209.pub2

Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin and Hefazi, Mitra and Davoli, Marina and Amato, Laura and Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh and Sahimi-Izadian, Elahe and Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza [The Cochrane Library] . (2009) Pharmacological therapies for management of opium withdrawal (Protocol). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007522

World Health Organization. [WHO] (2009) Guidelines for the psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence. Geneva: World Health Organizaton Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. 136 p.

Kenny, Pauline and Swan, Amy and Berends, Lynda and Jenner, Linda and Hunter, Barbara and Mugavin, Janette [Turning Point] . (2009) Alcohol and other drug withdrawal: practice guidelines. Victoria: Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre. 221 p.

Lobmaier, Philipp and Kornor, Hege and Kunoe, Nikolaj and Bjørndal, Arild [The Cochrane Library] . (2008) Sustained-release naltrexone for opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006140.pub2

Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Office. [NSW Department of Health] (2008) Drug and alcohol withdrawal clinical practice guidelines - NSW. Sydney: NSW Department of Health. 101 p.

Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Office. [NSW Department of Health] (2008) Nursing & midwifery clinical guidelines - identifying & responding to drug & alcohol issues. Sydney: New South Wales Department of Health. 113 p.

Humeniuk, Rachel and Dennington, V and Ali, R . (2008) The effectiveness of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary health care settings: a technical report of phase iii findings of the WHO ASSIST randomized controlled trial. Geneva: World Health Organization.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. [NICE] (2007) Drug misuse: opioid detoxification. London: NICE. Clinical Guideline 52

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. [NICE] (2007) Methadone and buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence. London: NICE. NICE technology appraisal guidance 114

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. [NICE] (2007) Naltrexone for the management of opioid dependence. London: NICE. NICE technology appraisal guidance 115

Moore, Timothy [Drug Policy Modelling Program] . (2007) Monograph no. 14: Working estimates of the social costs per gram and per user for cannabis, cocaine, opiates and amphetamines. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. 60 p. DPMP Monograph Series

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. [NICE] (2007) Drug misuse in over 16s: psychosocial interventions. London: NICE. 38 p. Clinical guideline [CG51]

Bo, Li and Wu, Taixiang and Feng, Li and Wei-na, Jia [The Cochrane Library] . (2006) Traditional chinese medicine for opioid withdrawal syndrome (Protocol). London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006038

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. [SAMHSA, US] (2006) Counselor’s family education manual. Matrix intensive outpatient treatment for people with stimulant use disorders. Bethesda, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 172 p.

Ford, Chris and Barnard, Jim and Bury, Judy and Carnwath, Tom and Gerada, Claire and Joyce, Alan and Keen, Jenny and Lowe, Chris and Nelles, Bill and Roberts, Kay and Sander-Hess, Carola and Schofield, Penny and Scott, Jenny and Watson, Richard and Wolff, Kim [Royal College of General Practitioners, UK] . (2005) Guidance for the use of methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence in primary care. London: Royal College of General Practioners. 32 p.

Day, Ed and Ison, Julie and Strang, John [The Cochrane Library] . (2005) Inpatient versus other settings for detoxification for opioid dependence. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004580.pub2

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005) Medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction in opioid treatment programs. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 43

Mayet, Soraya and Farrell, Michael and Ferri, Marica and Amato, Laura [The Cochrane Library] . (2004) Psychosocial treatment for opiate abuse and dependence (withdrawn review). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004330.pub2

RCGP Drug & Alcohol Misuse Training Programme, RCGP Sex, Drugs and HIV Task Group, SMMGP. [Royal College of General Practitioners, UK] (2004) Guidance for the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence in primary care. London: Royal College of General Practitioners. 10 p.

World Health Organization, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNAIDS. [WHO] (2004) WHO/UNODC/UNAIDS position paper. Substitution maintenance therapy in the management of opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization. 36 p.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2004) Clinical guidelines for the use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, no. 40

Faggiano, Fabrizio and Vigna-Taglianti, Federica and Versino, Elisabetta and Lemma, Patrizia [The Cochrane Library] . (2003) Methadone maintenance at different dosages for opioid dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002208

Clark, Nicolas C. and Lintzeris, Nicholas and Gijsbers, Alan and Whelan, Greg and Dunlop, Adrian and Ritter, Alison and Ling, Walter W. [The Cochrane Library] . (2002) LAAM maintenance vs methadone maintenance for heroin dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002210

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debates. Written answers 325, 326, 327 & 328 - Medicinal products regulation [6693/18]. (13 Feb 2018)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 200 - substance misuse [30343/17] [Fentanyl]. (28 Jun 2017)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 236 - Misuse of drugs [23886/17] [Fentanyl]. (18 May 2017)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 36 - Prescriptions data [Opioids and sedatives] [37968/16]. (01 Dec 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answers 663, 664, 665, 666 - Drug treatment programmes [Buprenorphine-naloxone & services] [24091/16, 24092/16, 24094/16, 24093/16]. (21 Jul 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 301 - Long-term illness scheme [Naltrexone] [4809/16]. (22 Mar 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 761 - medicinal products availability. [30578/15]. (22 Sep 2015)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 376 - Medicinal products availability [19728/15]. (19 May 2015)

Book

Levinthal, Charles F (2011) Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon .

Rassool, G Hussein (2010) Addiction for nurses. Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell .

Shapiro, Harry (2010) The media guide to drugs: key facts and figures for journalists. London: Drugscope .

Gordon, Adam J (2010) Physical illness and drugs of abuse. A review of the evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

Robson, Philip (2009) Forbidden drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Levinthal, Charles F (2008) Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston ; London: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon .

Kuhn, Cynthia and Swartzwelder, Scott and Wilson, Wilkie (2008) Buzzed: the straight facts about the most used and abused drugs from alcohol to ecstasy. New York: W.W. Norton .

Maisto, Stephen A and Galizio, Mark and Connors, Gerard J (2008) Drug use and abuse. Wadsworth .

Goodman, Jordan and Lovejoy, Paul E and Sherratt, Andrew, eds. (2007) Consuming habits: global and historical perspectives on how cultures define drugs. London: Routledge .

Gracer, Richard I (2007) A new prescription for addiction. Subutex, Prometa, Vivitrol, and Campral - the revolutionary new treatments for alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, and prescription drug addiction. USA: Elite Books .

Strain, Eric C and Stitzer, Maxine L, eds. (2006) The treatment of opioid dependence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press .

Wills, Simon (2005) Drugs of abuse. London: Pharmaceutical Press .

Frances, Richard R and Miller, Steve and Mack, Avram H, eds. (2005) Clinical textbook of addictive disorders. New York: Guilford .

Kraus, Ludwig and Korf, Dirk, eds. (2005) Research on drugs and drug policy from a European perspective : selected readings from the 15th International Conference of the European Society for Social Drug Research (ESSD). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers .

Edwards, Griffith (2005) Matters of substance : drugs : is legalization the right answer - or the wrong question? London: Penguin Books .

Winger, Gail and Woods, James H and Hofmann, Frederick G (2004) A handbook on drug and alcohol abuse: the biomedical aspects. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Hulse, Gary, ed. (2004) Alcohol and drug problems: a case studies workbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Brick, John, ed. (2004) Handbook of the medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. New York: Haworth Press .

Blachford, Stacey L and Krapp, Kristine, eds. (2003) Drugs and controlled substances: information for students. Farmington Hills MI: Gale .

Gahlinger, Paul M (2002) Illegal drugs : a complete guide to their history, chemistry, use and abuse. Sagebrush Medical Guides Salt Lake City: Sagebrush .

Musto, David F., ed. (2002) Drugs in America: a documentary history. New York: New York University Press .

Hanson, Glen R and Venturelli, Peter J and Fleckenstein, Annette E (2002) Drugs and society. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett .

Kintz, Pascal and Marquet, Pierre, eds. (2002) Buprenorphine therapy of opiate addiction. Totowa: Humana Press .

Teesson, Maree and Degenhardt, Louisa and Hall, Wayne (2002) Addictions. Clinical psychology: a modular course Hove: Psychology Press .

Courtwright, David T (2002) Dark paradise: a history of opiate addiction in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press .

Stocco, Paolo and DeFazio, Laura and Carvalho, Marlen and Lopis, Juan Jóse and Facy, Francoise and Mariani, Evelyne and Legl, Thomas and Castillo, Agurtzane and Rebollida, Montse (2002) Women and opiate addiction: a European perspective. Palma de Mollorca: IREFREA .

Ray, Oakley and Ksir, Charles (2002) Drugs, society and human behavior. Philadelphia PA: McGraw-Hill Education .

Karch, Steven B (2002) Karch's pathology of drug abuse. Boca Raton Fl.: CRC Press .

Davenport-Hines, Richard (2001) The pursuit of oblivion, a global history of narcotics 1500-2000. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson .

Goldstein, Avram (2001) Addiction: from biology to drug policy. New York: Oxford University Press .

Meyers, Robert J and Miller, William R, eds. (2001) A community reinforcement approach to addiction. International Research Monographs in the Addiction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

Hodgson, Barabara (2001) In the arms of morpheus: the tragic history of laudanum, morphine, and patent medicines. Buffalo: Firefly Books .

Julien, Robert M (2001) A primer of drug action: a concise, nontechnical guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs. New York: WH Freeman and Company .

Patricio, Luis and Duran, Domingos (2001) Exploratory study on opiate substitution in Europe. Portugal: ERIT. Federation of European Professionals Working in the Field of Drug Abuse .

Preston, Andrew and Malinowski, Andy (2000) The detox handbook: a user's guide to getting off opiates. Dorset: Exchange Publicatons .

Berridge, Virginia (1999) Opium and the people: opiate use and drug control policy in nineteenth and early twentieth century England. London: Free Association .

Ward, Jeff and Mattick, Richard P and Hall, Wayne, eds. (1998) Methadone maintenance treatment and other opioid replacement therapies. Sydney: Harwood Academic Publishers .

Friedman, Lawrence S and Fleming, Nicholas F and Roberts, David H and Hyman, Steven E, eds. (1996) Sourcebook of substance abuse and addiction. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins .

Balster, Robert L and Kuhar, Machael J and Schuster, Charles R, eds. (1996) Pharmacological aspects of drug dependence: toward an integrated neurobehavioral approach. Handbook of experimental pharmacology; v. 118 Berlin: Springer .

Wonnacott, S and Lunt, GG, eds. (1993) Neurochemistry of drug dependence. Biochemical Society symposia; no. 59 London: Portland .

Charleton, Peter (1986) Controlled drugs and the criminal law. Dublin: An Cló Liúir .

Flynn, Sean and Yeates, Padraig (1985) Smack: the criminal drugs racket in Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan .

Research Project

(start date 1 September 2014) Carew, Anne Marie and Comiskey, Catherine (2014) Measuring and modelling the extent of addiction treatment and associated outcomes among ageing opiate users using routine health surveillance data.

Conference or Workshop Item

Farren, Conor Kevin (2005) Opiate treatment and benzodiazapines: treatment options. In: The 6th Conference on the Management of Drug Users in the Primary Care Setting, 12 March 2005, St. James' Hospital Trinity Centre, Dublin.

Thesis

Dempsey, Orla (2011) Developing and implementing models for the prevalence, incidence and geographic spread of opiate use in Ireland. PhD thesis, Trinity College Dublin.

Hand, E (2006) Estimation of the prevalence and the latency period of opiate use in Dublin. MSc thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth.

Delaney-Reid, Janne (1991) The function of stress as a determinant in drug choice: a comparative study. PhD thesis, Trinity College Dublin.

FactSheet

HRB National Drugs Library. (2018) Factsheet: Opiates - the Irish situation. Dublin: HRB National Drugs Library.

Adley, Mark (2017) Tramadol: UK and Ireland DrugWatch information sheet. UK & Ireland DrugWatch.

Drugs.ie. (2017) Pregabalin factsheet. Dublin: drugs.ie.

Irish Sports Council. (2008) Irish Sports Council factsheets: Alcohol, cannabinoids, narcotics. Dublin: Irish Sports Council.

This list was generated on Thu Apr 26 03:18:28 2018 GMT.