Home > Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs.

Platt, Lucy and Minozzi, Silvia and Reed, Jennifer and Vickerman, Peter and Hagan, Holly and French, Clare and Jordan, Ashly and Degenhardt, Louisa and Hope, Vivian and Hutchinson, Sharon and Maher, Lisa and Palmateer, Norah and Taylor, Avril and Bruneau, Julie and Hickman, Matthew [The Cochrane Library] . (2017) Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1465185...

BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of HCV in people who inject drugs.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Register, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, and the Web of Science up to 16 November 2015. We updated this search in March 2017, but we have not incorporated these results into the review yet. Where observational studies did not report any outcome measure, we asked authors to provide unpublished data. We searched publications of key international agencies and conference abstracts. We reviewed reference lists of all included articles and topic-related systematic reviews for eligible papers.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials that measured exposure to NSP and/or OST against no intervention or a reduced exposure and reported HCV incidence as an outcome in people who inject drugs. We defined interventions as current OST (within previous 6 months), lifetime use of OST and high NSP coverage (regular attendance at an NSP or all injections covered by a new needle/syringe) or low NSP coverage (irregular attendance at an NSP or less than 100% of injections covered by a new needle/syringe) compared with no intervention or reduced exposure.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard Cochrane methodological procedures incorporating new methods for classifying risk of bias for observational studies. We described study methods against the following 'Risk of bias' domains: confounding, selection bias, measurement of interventions, departures from intervention, missing data, measurement of outcomes, selection of reported results; and we assigned a judgment (low, moderate, serious, critical, unclear) for each criterion.

MAIN RESULTS: We identified 28 studies (21 published, 7 unpublished): 13 from North America, 5 from the UK, 4 from continental Europe, 5 from Australia and 1 from China, comprising 1817 incident HCV infections and 8806.95 person-years of follow-up. HCV incidence ranged from 0.09 cases to 42 cases per 100 person-years across the studies. We judged only two studies to be at moderate overall risk of bias, while 17 were at serious risk and 7 were at critical risk; for two unpublished datasets there was insufficient information to assess bias. As none of the intervention effects were generated from RCT evidence, we typically categorised quality as low. We found evidence that current OST reduces the risk of HCV acquisition by 50% (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.63, I2 = 0%, 12 studies across all regions, N = 6361), but the quality of the evidence was low. The intervention effect remained significant in sensitivity analyses that excluded unpublished datasets and papers judged to be at critical risk of bias. We found evidence of differential impact by proportion of female participants in the sample, but not geographical region of study, the main drug used, or history of homelessness or imprisonment among study samples.Overall, we found very low-quality evidence that high NSP coverage did not reduce risk of HCV acquisition (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.61) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 77%) based on five studies from North America and Europe involving 3530 participants. After stratification by region, high NSP coverage in Europe was associated with a 76% reduction in HCV acquisition risk (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.62) with less heterogeneity (I2 =0%). We found low-quality evidence of the impact of combined high coverage of NSP and OST, from three studies involving 3241 participants, resulting in a 74% reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition (RR 0.26 95% CI 0.07 to 0.89).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: OST is associated with a reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition, which is strengthened in studies that assess the combination of OST and NSP. There was greater heterogeneity between studies and weaker evidence for the impact of NSP on HCV acquisition. High NSP coverage was associated with a reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition in studies in Europe.


Item Type:Evidence resource
Publication Type:Review
Drug Type:Opioid
Intervention Type:AOD disorder, AOD disorder harm reduction
Source:The Cochrane Library
Date:18 September 2017
Page Range:CD012021
Publisher:John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Place of Publication:London
Volume:9
EndNote:View
Related URLs:
Subjects:G Health and disease > Etiology > Disease transmission factor > Needle sharing
G Health and disease > Disorder by cause > Communicable disease > Hepatitis C
HJ Treatment method > Substance disorder treatment method > Substance replacement method (substitution)
HJ Treatment method > Substance disorder treatment method > Substance replacement method (substitution) > Methadone maintenance
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Health related prevention > Health information and education > Communicable disease control
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Health related prevention > Health information and education > Communicable disease control > Needle distribution and exchange
L Social psychology and related concepts > Physical context or place > Safe spaces for drug users (injecting centre / consumption rooms)

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