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McNicholas, M and Scully, M and Keenan, Eamon (2021) An overview of recent advances in opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , Early online .

Saris, A. Jamie (2021) The dialectics of heroin and methadone in Ireland. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , Early online .

Hanniffy, Sarah and Kavanagh, Yvonne (2021) Irish drug quantification trends for cocaine, diamorphine, and amphetamine 2016–2019. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 77, Spring 2021 , pp. 43-46.

Seyler, Thomas and Giraudon, Isabelle and Noor, André and Mounteney, Jane and Griffiths, Paul (2021) Is Europe facing an opioid epidemic: what does European monitoring data tell us? European Journal of Pain , 25 , (5) , pp. 1072-1080.

Walmsley, Ian (2021) Self-detoxification, embodiment and masculinity: a qualitative analysis of dependent heroin users’ experiences of coming off drugs in prison. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy .

McLoughlin, Aoibheann and Feeney, Anna and Cooney, John (2021) Homelessness, emergency care and mental health. Inner-city emergency department psychiatry referrals: a retrospective descriptive analysis. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 190 , (3) , pp. 1201-1204.

Lynn, Ena and Cousins, Grainne and Lyons, Suzi and Bennett, Kathleen E (2021) Trends in drug poisoning deaths, by sex, in Ireland: a repeated cross-sectional study from 2004 to 2017. BMJ Open , 11 , (9) , e048000.

Welle-Strand, Gabrielle K and Skurtveit, Svetlana and Clausen, Thomas and Sundal, Christine and Gjersing, Linn (2020) COVID-19 survey among people who use drugs in three cities in Norway. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 217 , p. 108302.

May, Colette and Downey, Carol and Power, John D and Kavanagh, Pierce V (2020) An unusual detection of tert-butyl-4-anilinopiperidine-1-carboxylate in seizures of falsified 'Xanax' tablets and in items in a suspected heroin seizure submitted by Irish law enforcement. Drug Testing and Analysis , 12 , (9) , pp. 1387-1392.

Costa, Catia and Ismail, Mahado and Stevenson, Derek and Gibson, Brian and Webb, Roger and Bailey, Melanie (2020) Distinguishing between contact and administration of heroin from a single fingerprint using high resolution mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology , 44 , (3) , pp. 218-225.

Harris, Julie and Shorter, Gillian W and Davidson, Gavin and Best, Paul (2020) Risk perception, changing social context, and norms prevent transition to regular injection among people who smoke heroin. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 208 , p. 107878.

Carney, Tara and Van Hout, Marie Claire and Norman, Ian and Dada, SiphoKazi and Siegfried, Nandi and Parry, Charles DH (2020) Dihydrocodeine for detoxification and maintenance treatment in individuals with opiate use disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , (2) .

Smyth, Bobby P and McCarney, G (2020) Treatment of adolescent heroin dependence: the end of an era. Irish Medical Journal , 113 , (1) , p. 2.

Bobashev, Georgiy and Mars, Sarah and Murphy, Nicholas and Dreisbach, Clinton and Zule, William and Ciccarone, Daniel (2019) Heroin type, injecting behavior, and HIV transmission. a simulation model of HIV incidence and prevalence. PLoS ONE , 14 , (12) , e0215042.

Harris, Magdalena and Scott, Jenny and Wright, Talen and Brathwaite, Rachel and Ciccarone, Daniel and Hope, Vivian (2019) Injecting-related health harms and overuse of acidifiers among people who inject heroin and crack cocaine in London: a mixed-methods study. Harm Reduction Journal , 16 , (1) , p. 60.

Medina-Perucha, L and Family, H and Scott, J and Chapman, S and Dack, C (2019) Factors associated with sexual risks and risk of STIs, HIV and other blood-borne viruses among women using heroin and other drugs: a systematic literature review. AIDS and Behavior , 23 , (1) , pp. 222-251.

Lewer, Dan and Tweed, Emily J and Aldridge, Robert W and Morley, Katherine (2019) Causes of hospital admission and mortality among people who use heroin: a cohort study comparing relative and absolute risks. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 204 , (107525) .

Lynn, Therese and Lynn, Ena and Keenan, Eamon and Lyons, Suzi (2018) Trends in injector deaths in Ireland, as recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index, 1998–2014. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 79 , (2) , pp. 286-292.

Klimas, Jan and Dong, Huiru and Fairbairn, Nadia and Socías, Eugenia and Barrios, Rolando and Wood, Evan and Kerr, Thomas and Montaner, Julio and Milloy, M-J (2018) Eligibility for heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) among people who inject opioids and are living with HIV in a Canadian setting. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice , 13 , (1) , p. 3.

Smyth, Bobby P and Elmusharaf, Khalifa and Cullen, Walter (2018) Opioid substitution treatment and heroin dependent adolescents: reductions in heroin use and treatment retention over twelve months. BMC Pediatrics , 18 , (1) , p. 151.

Hart, Wayne and Healy, Deirdre (2018) ‘An inside job’: An autobiographical account of desistance. European Journal of Probation , 10 , (2) , pp. 103-119.

Smyth, Bobby P and Ducray, Kevin and Cullen, Walter (2018) Changes in psychological well-being among heroin-dependent adolescents during psychologically supported opiate substitution treatment. Early Intervention in Psychiatry , 12 , (3) , pp. 417-425.

Coomber, Ross and Moyle, Leah (2017) The changing shape of street-level heroin and crack supply in England: commuting, holidaying and cuckooing drug dealers across ‘county lines’. The British Journal of Criminology , azx068 .

Lyndon, Abigail and Audrey, Suzanne and Wells, Claudia and Burnell, Erica S and Ingle, Suzanne and Hill, Rob and Hickman, Matthew and Henderson, Graeme (2017) Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin. Addiction , 112 , (9) , pp. 1580-1589.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2016) Maintenance prescribing saves lives of English heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Findings Research Analysis , (8 November 2016) .

Comiskey, Catherine M and Hyland, John and Hyland, Pauline (2016) Parenthood, child care, and heroin use: outcomes after three years. Substance Use & Misuse , 51 , (12) , pp. 1600-1609.

Cannon, Aoife (2016) Psychological health of heroin-dependent teenagers in treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 58, Summer 2016 , pp. 23-24.

Hearne, Evelyn and Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelius and Van Hout, Marie Claire and McVeigh, Jim (2016) A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy. Harm Reduction Journal , 13 , (14) .

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2016) Clonidine trialled in new anti-relapse role for heroin dependence. Drug and Alcohol Findings Research Analysis , (11 April 2016) .

Lyons, Suzi (2016) Overdose risk among heroin users: a pilot prevention study. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 56, Winter 2016 , pp. 19-20.

Horan, John Aidan and Deasy, Conor and Henry, Kieran and O'Brien, Declan and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2015) Overdose risk perceptions and experience of overdose among heroin users in Cork, Ireland. Preliminary results from a pilot overdose prevention study. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 17 , (5) , pp. 19-26.

Strang, John and Groshkova, Teodora and Uchtenhagen, A and van den Brink, Wim and Haasen, Christian and Schechter, Martin T and Lintzeris, Nicholas and Bell, James and Pirona, Alessandro and Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia and Simon, Roland and Metrebian, Nicola (2015) Heroin on trial: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of diamorphine-prescribing as treatment for refractory heroin addiction. The British Journal of Psychiatry , 207 , (1) , pp. 5-14.

Mayock, Paula and Cronly, Jennifer and Clatts, Michael C (2015) The risk environment of heroin initiation: young women, intimate partners, and “drug relationships”. Substance Use & Misuse , 50 , (6) , pp. 771-782.

Dines, Alison M and Wood, David M and Yates, Christopher and Heyerdahl, Fridtjof and Hovda, Knut Erik and Giraudon, Isabelle and Sedefov, Roumen and Dargan, Paul I (2015) Acute recreational drug and new psychoactive substance toxicity in Europe: 12 months data collection from the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN). Clinical Toxicology , 53 , (9) , pp. 893-900.

Galvin, Brian (2014) Annual review of the drug situation in Europe. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 50, Summer 2014 , pp. 12-13.

Connolly, Johnny (2014) Forensic Science Laboratory analyses street-level heroin and cocaine. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 50, Summer 2014 , pp. 22-23.

Degenhardt, Louisa and Charlson, Fiona and Mathers, Bradley and Hall, Wayne D and Flaxman, Abraham D and Johns, Nicole and Vos, Theo (2014) The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Addiction , 109 , (8) , pp. 1320-1333.

Boyle, Michelle and Carroll, Lynn and Clarke, Karen and Clarke, Paula and Coyle, Hugh J and English, Henry and Goff, Miriam and Kane, Eugene and Killoran, Sarah and O'Connor, Kristen (2014) What's the deal? Trends in Irish street-level heroin and cocaine 2010-2012. Drug Testing and Analysis , 6 , (9) , pp. 953-958.

Keane, Lisa and Ducray, Kevin and Smyth, Bobby P (2014) Psychological characteristics of heroin-dependent and non-opioid-substance-dependent adolescents in community drug treatment services. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse , 23 , (4) , p. 205.

Mayock, Paula and Sheridan, Sarah (2013) At home in prison? Women and the homelessness– incarceration nexus. Irish Probation Journal , 10 , pp. 118-140.

Comiskey, Catherine (2013) A 3 year national longitudinal study comparing drug treatment outcomes for opioid users with and without children in their custodial care at intake. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 44 , (1) , pp. 90-96.

Barrio, Gregorio and Montanari, Linda and Bravo, Maria and Guarita, Bruno and de La Fuente, Luis and Pulido, Jose and Vicente, Julian (2013) Trends of heroin use and heroin injection epidemics in Europe: findings from the EMCDDA treatment demand indicator (TDI). Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 45 , (1) , pp. 19-30.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin prescribing]. Drug and Alcohol Findings , 15 June 2012 .

Comiskey, Catherine and Stapleton, Robert and Kelly, Paul (2012) Ongoing cocaine and benzodiazepine use: effects on acquisitive crime committal rates amongst opiate users in treatment. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy , 19 , (5) , pp. 406-414.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin assisted treatment]. Drug and Alcohol Findings , 19 Jan .

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin assisted treatment]. Drug and Alcohol Findings , 10 Jan .

Stokes, Siobhan (2012) Quantitative evidence of a heroin drought. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 40, Winter 2011 , pp. 21-23.

Ducray, Kevin and Darker, Catherine D and Smyth, Bobby P (2012) Situational and psycho-social factors associated with relapse following residential detoxification in a population of Irish opioid dependent patients. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 29 , (2) , pp. 72-79.

Smyth, Bobby P and Fagan, John and Kernan, Kathy (2012) Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 42 , (1) , pp. 35-44.

Harris, Julie and McElrath, Karen (2012) Methadone as social control: institutionalized stigma and the prospect of recovery. Qualitative Health Research , 22 , (6) , pp. 810-824.

Griffiths, Paul and Mountenay, Jane and Laniel, Laurent (2012) Understanding changes in heroin availability in Europe over time: emerging evidence for a slide, a squeeze and a shock. Addiction , 107 , (9) , pp. 1539-1540.

Somers, CJ and O'Connor, John J (2012) Retrospective study of outcomes, for patients admitted to a Drug Treatment Centre Board. Irish Medical Journal , 105 , (9) , pp. 295-298.

Barry, David and Syed, Hussain and Smyth, Bobby P (2012) The journey into injecting heroin use. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 14 , (3) , pp. 89-100.

Ferri, Marica and Davoli, Marina and Perucci, Carlo A (2011) Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin‐dependent individuals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , (12) .

McCabe, Ian and Acree, Michael and O'Mahony, Finbarr and McCabe, Jenny and Kenny, Jean and Twyford, Jennifer and Quigley, Karen and McGlanaghy, Edel (2011) Male street prostitution in Dublin: a psychological analysis. Journal of Homosexuality , 58 , (8) , pp. 998-1021.

Cox, Gemma and Comiskey, Catherine (2011) Does concurrent cocaine use compromise 1-year treatment outcomes for opiate users? Substance Use & Misuse , 46 , (9) , pp. 1206-1216.

McDonnell, Anne and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2011) Heroin detoxification-seeking, a grounded theory of process and practicalities. Grounded Theory Review , 10 , (1) , pp. 17-41.

Lyons, Suzi (2011) Updated Cochrane review of heroin maintenance treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 39, Autumn 2011 , pp. 18-19.

Braden, Marina and McGowan, Iain W and McLaughlin, Derek Francis and McKenna, Hugh and Keeney, Sinead and Quinn, Breige (2011) Users, carers and professionals experiences of treatment and care for heroin dependency: implications for practice. A preliminary study. Journal of Substance Use , 16 , (6) , pp. 452-463.

Ducray, Kevin and Byrne, Patricia and Burke, Clare and Smyth, Bobby P (2011) A comparison of the drug use patterns, measures of needs and quality of life of methadone-maintained patients using and not using cocaine. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 13 , (3) , pp. 27-38.

McKeown, Paul (2010) Anthrax identified in heroin users in Scotland. EPI-Insight , 11 , (2) .

Barry, Joseph and Ward, Mary and Cotter, S and MacDiarmada, J and Hannan, M and Sweeney, Brion and Grant, KA and McKeown, P (2009) Botulism in injecting drug users, Dublin, Ireland, November-December 2008. Eurosurveillance , 14 , (1) .

Donovan, Anne Marie (2008) The supply of heroin to Europe - update. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 28, Winter 2008 , pp. 7-8.

O'Connor, Gabrielle and McMahon, Geraldine (2008) Complications of heroin abuse. European Journal of Emergency Medicine , 15 , (2) , pp. 104-106.

White, Emma and Comiskey, Catherine (2007) Heroin epidemics, treatment and ODE modelling. Mathematical Biosciences , 208 , (1) , pp. 312-24.

Keane, Martin (2007) Families coping with heroin use. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 22, Summer 2007 , pp. 20-21.

Connolly, Johnny (2006) Cocaine-related prosecutions eclipse those for heroin. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 19, Autumn 2006 , pp. 3-4.

Sinclair, Hamish and Long, Jean (2006) Health Service Executive facilitates workshop on cocaine. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 18, Summer 2006 , p. 11.

March, Joan Carles and Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia and Romero, Manuel (2006) Drugs and social exclusion in ten European cities. European Addiction Research , 12 , (1) , pp. 33-41.

Long, Jean and Keenan, Eamon and Grogan, Loretto and Mullen, Louise and Barry, Joseph and Sinclair, Hamish (2006) HIV infection among heroin users and area of residence. Irish Medical Journal , 99 , (8) , pp. 230-233.

Pike, Brigid (2005) Government reports progress on new drug initiatives. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 16, Winter 2005 , pp. 14-15.

Long, Jean and Kelly, Fionnola (2005) Heroin misuse in Athlone and Portlaoise. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 14, Summer 2005 , pp. 7-8.

Keane, Martin (2005) Heroin - the mental roof over your head: Links between homelessness and drug use. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 13, Spring 2005 , pp. 5-6.

Higgins, Kathryn and Kilpatrick, R (2005) The impact of paramilitary violence against a heroin-user community in Nothern Ireland: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Drug Policy , 16 , pp. 334-342.

Haasen, Christian and Prinzleve, Michael and Zurhold, Heike and Rehm, Jürgen and Guttinger, Franziska and Fischer, Gabriele and Jagsch, Reinhold and Olsson, B and Ekendahl, Mats and Verster, Annette and Camposeragna, Antonella and Pezous, Ann-Marie and Gossop, Michael and Manning, Victoria and Cox, Gemma and Ryder, Niamh and Gerevich, Jozsef and Bacskai, Erika and Casas, Miguel and Matali, Josep Lluis and Krausz, Michael (2004) Cocaine use in Europe - a multi-centre study. European Addiction Research , 10 , (4) , pp. 139-146.

Sporer, Karl A (2003) Strategies for preventing heroin overdose. British Medical Journal , 326 , (7386) , pp. 442-444.

Clark, Nicolas C. and Lintzeris, Nicholas and Gijsbers, Alan and Whelan, Greg and Dunlop, Adrian and Ritter, Alison and Ling, Walter W. (2002) LAAM maintenance vs methadone maintenance for heroin dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , (2) .

Gervin, Maurice and Hughes, Rita and Bamford, L and Smyth, Bobby P and Keenan, Eamon (2001) Heroin smoking by 'chasing the dragon' in young opiate users in Ireland. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 20 , (4) , pp. 297-300.

McElrath, Karen and McEvoy, Kieran (2001) Heroin as Evil: ecstasy users' perceptions about heroin. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 8 , (2) , pp. 177-189.

Smyth, Bobby P and O'Brien, Mary and Barry, Joseph (2000) Trends in treated opiate misuse in Dublin: the emergence of chasing the dragon. Addiction , 95 , (8) , pp. 1217-1223.

Gervin, Maurice and Smith, Robert and Bamford, L and Keenan, Eamon (1998) Chasing the Dragon: experience in Ireland and associations with ecstasy. Addiction , 93 , (4) , pp. 601-602.

Butler, Shane (1991) Drug problems and drug policies in Ireland: a quarter of a century reviewed. Administration , 39 , (3) , pp. 210-233.

O'Mahony, Paul (1990) Abstinence in treated and untreated opiate abusers: a study of a prison sample. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 7 , (2) , pp. 121-123.

O'Connor, JJ and Stafford-Johnson, S. and Kelly, Michael G (1988) A review of the characteristics and treatment progress of 45 pregnant opiate addicts attending the Irish National Drug Advisory and Treatment Centre over a two year period. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 157 , (5) , pp. 146-149.

O'Kelly, FD and Cullen, Barry and Bury, Gerard and Dean, Geoffrey (1988) The rise and fall of heroin use in an inner city area of Dublin. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 157 , (2) , pp. 35-38.

Dean, Geoffrey and O'Hare, Aileen and O'Connor, Aideen and Kelly, M and Kelly, Grainne (1987) The opiate epidemic in Dublin: are we over the worst? Irish Medical Journal , 80 , (5) , pp. 139-142.

O'Kelly, Fergus Desmond and O'Doherty, Kevin and Bury, Gerard and O'Callaghan, Eadbhard (1986) Heroin abuse in an inner city practice. Irish Medical Journal , 79 , (4) , pp. 85-87.

Raftery, Mary and Toibin, Colm and O'Kane, Maggie (1984) The heroin bushfire. Magill , pp. 7-15.

O'Mahony, Paul and Smith, E. (1984) Some personality characteristics of imprisoned heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 13 , (3) , pp. 255-265.

Ryan, Anthony and Magee, Teresa and Stafford-Johnson, S and Griffin, E and Kelly, Michael G (1983) The emergence of maternal drug addiction as a problem in Ireland 1981. Irish Medical Journal , 76 , (2) , pp. 86-89.

Ryan, WJ and Arthurs, Yvonne and Kelly, Michael G and Fielding, JF (1982) Heroin abuse with hepatitis B virus associated chronic active hepatitis in a twelve year old child. Irish Medical Journal , 75 , (5) , p. 166.

Raftery, Mary Heroin: the sweet dream of death. In Dublin .

Report

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Opioids: health and social responses. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Hallam, Christopher (2021) Heroin-Assisted Treatment and the United Nations international drug control apparatus. Swansea: Global Drug Policy Observatory.

Forensic Science Ireland. (2021) Forensic Science Ireland annual report 2020. Dublin: Forensic Science Ireland.

Toronto's Drug Checking Service. (2021) What's in Toronto's drug supply? Results from samples checked by Toronto's drug checking service January 1 - December 31, 2020. Toronto: Centre on Drug Policy Evaluation.

Montague, Andrew (2021) Ballymun – a brighter future. A plan to tackle the underlying causes of addiction and crime and to tackle open drug dealing. Dublin: Ballymun Local Drugs and Alcohol Task Force.

Karlsson, Antonia and Price, Olivia and Uporova, Julia and Peacock, Amy (2021) South Australian drug trends 2020: key findings from the illicit drug reporting system (IDRS) interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Balancing access to opioid substitution treatment (OST) with preventing the diversion of opioid substitution medications in Europe: challenges and implications. Technical report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Rintoul, Chris (2021) Groin injecting in Northern Ireland: views of the experts by experience. Belfast: Extern and Queen's University Belfast.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) An analysis of drugs in used syringes from sentinel European cities: results from the ESCAPE project, 2018 and 2019. Technical report. Luxembourg: Office of the European Union.

Peacock, Amy and Uporova, Julia and Karlsson, Antonia and Price, Olivia and Gibbs, Daisy and Swanton, Rosie and Chan, Roanna and Bruno, Raimondo and Dietze, Paul and Lenton, Simon R and Salom, Caroline and Degenhardt, Louisa and Farrell, Michael (2021) Australian drug trends 2020: key findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney.

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O'Neill, Derek and Carew, Anne Marie and Lyons, Suzi (2020) National Drug Treatment Reporting System 2013 – 2019 drug data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2020) Impact of COVID-19 on patterns drug use and drug-related harms in Europe. Lisbon: EMCDDA.

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Health Research Board. (2019) National Drug Treatment Reporting System 2012-2018 drug data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

OECD. (2019) Addressing problematic opioid use in OECD countries. Paris: OECD Publishing.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2019) Drugs in syringes from six European cities: results from the ESCAPE project 2017. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Pardo, Bryce and Jirka, Taylor and Caulkins, Jonathan P and Kilmer, Beau and Reuter, Peter and Stein, Bradley D (2019) The future of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Kilmer, Beau and Taylor, Jirka and Caulkins, Jonathan P and Mueller, Pam A and Ober, Allison J and Pardo, Bryce and Smart, Rosanna and Strang, Lucy and Reuter, Peter (2018) Considering heroin-assisted treatment and supervised drug consumption sites in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

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Cosford, Paul (2017) NHS Central Alert System: Evidence of harm from fentanyl-contaminated heroin. London: Department of Health.

Health Research Board. (2016) National Drug-Related Deaths Index 2004 to 2014 data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol, Northern Ireland. Department of Health. (2016) Prevalence of drug use and gambling in Ireland & drug use in Northern Ireland. Bulletin 1. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

O'Heaire, Gary (2016) Clondalkin Tús Nua street based harm reduction service activity report 2011 - 2015. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

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Ahmad, Maryam and Richardson, Anna (2016) Impact of the reduction in heroin supply between 2010 and 2011. London: Home Office.

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Costello, Liza (2014) Travellers in the Irish prison system: a qualitative study. Dublin: Irish Penal Reform Trust.

Drummond, Anne and Codd, Mary and Donnelly, N and McCausland, D and Mehegan, J and Daly, L and Kelleher, Cecily (2014) Study on the prevalence of drug use, including intravenous drug use, and blood-borne viruses among the Irish prisoner population. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

Drummond, Anne and Codd, Mary (2014) Drugs and health in Irish prisons 2011. A report for prisoners. National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

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O'Heaire, Gary (2013) Cracking on: a harm reduction report. Dublin: The Bawnogue Youth and Family Support Group.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2013) EMCDDA–Europol 2012 Annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA (New drugs in Europe, 2012. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Campus.ie. (2013) The National student survey 2013. Dublin: Campus.ie.

Neale, Joanne and Nettleton, Sarah and Pickering, Lucy (2012) The everyday lives of recovering heroin users. London: RSA.

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Duggan, Carmel (2007) The experiences of families seeking support in coping with heroin use. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Oliver, Philip and Forrest, Robert and Keen, Jenny (2007) Does the combined use of heroin or methadone and other substances increase the risk of overdose? London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

McKeown, Kieran and Fitzgerald, Grace (2006) Experiences and attitudes of early school leavers: a survey of early school leavers in Ballymun & Mayo. Dublin: EQUAL Youth Project.

McElwee, Niall and Monaghan, Grainne (2005) Darkness on the edge of town: an exploratory study of heroin misuse in Athlone and Portlaoise. Athlone: Athlone Institute of Technology, Centre for Child & Youth Care Learning.

Reaper-Reynolds, Sheilagh and Williams, James and Wolfe, Esther and Keane, Rory (2005) Understanding substances and substance use: a handbook for teachers. Kildare: South Western Area Health Board.

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Lenke, Leif and Olsson, Borje (1995) 22nd meeting of experts in epidemiology (Strasbourg, 4-5 May 1995). Drug-related law enforcement data proposal for further analysis of heroin seizures. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Lavelle, Father Paul (1986) Heroin misuse in a north central Dublin area 1985: a follow up on the 1982-83 drug misuse in Ireland study. (Unpublished) Dublin: Medico-Social Research Board.

Dean, Geoffrey and Bradshaw, John S and Lavelle, Father Paul and Butler, Michael (1984) Characteristics of heroin and non-heroin users in a north-central Dublin Area. Dublin: Medico-Social Research Board.

Dean, Geoffrey and Power, B (1984) Heroin use in a Dun Laoghaire Borough area 1983-84. Dublin: Medico-Social Research Board.

Kelly, Michael G (1983) Report on drug abuse in Ireland, 1983. (Unpublished) Dublin: Jervis Street Drug Advisory and Treatment Centre.

O'Mahony, Paul and Gilmore, Thomas (1982) Drug abusers in the committal prisons: a survey. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Dean, Geoffrey and O'Kelly, Fergus Desmond and Cullen, Barry A report on the history, extent and effects of heroin use in the electoral ward, Merchants Quay F 1979 - 1985. Dublin: Medico-Social Research Board.

Webpage

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Health and social responses to drug problems: a European guide 2021. URL: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/health-a...

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. (2021) Drug related deaths in Northern Ireland, 2009-2019. URL: https://www.nisra.gov.uk/news/drug-related-deaths-...

Health Service Executive. (2015) Health A-Z. Drug misuse. URL: http://www.hse.ie/portal/eng/health/az/D/Drug-misu...

FactSheet

HRB National Drugs Library. (2021) Factsheet: Opiates - the Irish situation. Dublin: HRB National Drugs Library.

Mid America ATTC. (2018) Prescription opioids and heroin patient education. Kansas: Addiction Technology Transfer Center Network.

International Network of People who Use Drugs. (2012) Anthrax warning! Information for heroin users. New South Wales: INPUD.

UK Teratology Information Service. (2010) BUMPS: Best use of medicines in pregnancy - Morphine / Heroin. London: UK Teratology Information Service.

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 77 - Drugs seizures [40647/16] [Heroin, Cork]. (16 Dec 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 208 - Drug treatment programmes [Galway] [9738/15]. (05 Mar 2015)

[Oireachtas] Select Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality debate Vote 24 - Justice and Equality (supplementary) (continued). (20 Nov 2013)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Priority question 29 - National Drugs Strategy [46334/10]. (14 Dec 2010)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 57 - National Drugs Strategy [42992/10]. (17 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 263 - National Drugs Strategy [Heroin] [43047/10]. (16 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Priority questions 43 & 44 - Drug treatment services [40623/10]. (03 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 56 - National Drugs strategy [Heroin] [39341/10]. (03 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Adjournment debate. Drug treatment and prevention [Opiates]. (07 Jul 2009)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 319 - Drug abuse [Heroin & crime] [27110/09]. (07 Jul 2009)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. National Drugs Strategy: statements. (29 Nov 2007)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Other question 100 - Drugs in prisons [22504/07]. (09 Oct 2007)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 123 - Drugs in prisons [4940/05]. (16 Feb 2005)

Book

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. (2017) Quick guide to drugs & alcohol. New South Wales: Drug Info. State Library of NSW .

Demetrovics, Zsolt and Fountain, Jane and Kraus, Ludwig, eds. (2009) Old and new policies, theories, research methods and drug users across Europe. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers .

Robson, Philip (2009) Forbidden drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Mosher, Clayton James and Akins, Scott (2007) Drugs and drug policy : the control of consciousness alteration. Thousand Oaks Ca.: Sage .

Erickson, Carlton K (2007) The science of addiction : from neurobiology to treatment. New York: W.W. Norton .

Wechsburg, Wendee M and Kasten, Jennifer J (2007) Methadone maintenance treatment in the U.S. : a practical question and answer guide. New York: Springer .

Friesendorf, Cornelius (2007) US foreign policy and the war on drugs: displacing the cocaine and heroin industry. CSS studies in security and international relations Abingdon: Routledge .

Platt, Jerome (2006) Heroin addiction: theory, research and treatment. Vol 2, the addict, the treatment process, and social control. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Pizzoli, LA, ed. (2006) Cocaine and heroin abuse research. New York: Nova Science Publishers .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (2005) Heroin addiction and the British system, Volume II: treatment and policy responses. London: Routledge .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (2005) Heroin addiction and the British system, Volume I: origins and evolution. London: Routledge .

O'Toole, Julie (2005) Heroin: a true story of drug addiction, hope and triumph. Dunshaughlin: Maverick House .

Warburton, Hamish and Turnbull, Paul J and Hough, Mike (2005) Occasional and controlled heroin use: not a problem? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation .

Downes, Paul (2003) Living with heroin: identity, social exclusion and HIV among the Russian-speaking minorities in Estonia and Latvia. Tallin: Legal Information Centre for Human Rights .

Stimson, Gerry V and Metrebian, Nicky (2003) Prescribing heroin: what is the evidence? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation .

Musto, David F., ed. (2002) One hundred years of heroin. Connecticut: Auburn House .

Kintz, Pascal and Marquet, Pierre, eds. (2002) Buprenorphine therapy of opiate addiction. Totowa: Humana Press .

Isralowitz, Richard (2002) Drug use, policy and management. Connecticut: Auburn House .

Espejo, Roman (2002) Drug abuse. Current controversies San Diego: Greenhaven Press .

Mott, Joy, ed. Spear, HB (2002) Heroin addiction care and control: the British system 1916-1984. London: Drugscope .

Courtwright, David T (2002) Dark paradise: a history of opiate addiction in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press .

Carnwath, Tom and Smith, Ian (2002) Heroin century. London: Routledge .

Connolly, Sean (2000) Need to know: heroin. Need to know series Oxford: Heinemann Library .

Jellinek Prevention. van der Meer, Ron (2000) Drug aware: every person's guide to understanding drugs. Sydney: Van der Meer Publishing .

Littell, Mary Ann (1999) Heroin drug dangers. Drug dangers Springfield: Enslow .

Community Response, Citywide. (1999) The tip of the iceberg: a report from the conference on 'Families and the Heroin Crisis: 20 years of neglect' October 1999. Dublin: Dublin Citywide Drugs Crisis Campaign and Community Response .

Uchtenhagen, A and Dobler-Mikola, A and Steffen, T and Gutzwiller, F and Blattler, R and Pfeifer, S (1999) Prescription of narcotics for heroin addicts: main results of the Swiss national cohort study. Medical prescription of narcotics; v. 1 Basel: Karger .

Inciardi, James A and Harrison, Lana D, eds. (1998) Heroin in the age of crack cocaine. Drugs, health, and social policy series; no. 6 Thousand Oaks Ca.: Sage .

Parker, Howard and Bury, Catherine and Egginton, Roy (1998) New heroin outbreaks amongst young people in England and Wales. Crime detection and prevention Police Research Group .

Fernandez, Humberto (1998) Heroin. Center City MN: Hazelden .

Bellenir, Karen, ed. (1996) Substance abuse sourcebook. Basic health-related information about the abuse of legal and illegal substance such as alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin; and including facts about substance abuse prevention strategies, intervention methods, treatment and recovery programs, and a section addressing the special problems related to substance abuse during pregnancy. Health Reference Series, v. 14 Detroit: Omingraphics .

Grapendaal, Martin and Leuw, Ed and Nelen, Hans (1995) A world of opportunities: life-style and economic behaviour of heroin addicts in Amsterdam. SUNY series in new social studies on alcohol and drugs. Albany: State University of New Yotk Press .

Korf, Dirk (1995) Dutch treat: formal control and illicit drug use in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers .

Platt, Jerome (1995) Heroin addiction: theory, research and treatment. Vol. 3, Treatment advances and AIDS. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (1994) Heroin addiction and drug policy: the British system. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Stephens, Richard (1991) The street addict role: a theory of heroin addiction. SUNY series in the new inequalities Albany: State University of New Yotk Press .

Faupel, Charles E (1991) Shooting dope: career patterns of hard-core heroin users. Gainesville FL: University of Florida Press .

Platt, Jerome (1986) Heroin addiction: theory, research, and treatment Vol 1 . Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Conference or Workshop Item

(2015) Address by Minister Aodhán Ó Ríordáin T.D. In: London School of Economics IDEAS Forum, 2 November, London.

Thesis

Cronly, Jennifer (2011) Heroin initiation and risk: an ethno-epidemiological approach. PhD thesis, Trinity College Dublin.

O'Gorman, Aileen (2005) Drug problems and social exclusion: the development of heroin careers in risk environments. PhD thesis, Middlesex University.

Video

RTE Archives. (1972) Scourge of drug addiction.

Audio

Henry, Karl (2021) Real Health Podcast: the cocaine episode.

Kilroy, Della (2014) Della Kilroy’s investigative series on methadone, supported by the Mary Raftery Journalism Fund . RTE Drivetime.

Dataset

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) EMCDDA statistical bulletin 2021.

Other

Irish Needle Exchange Forum. (2009) Mixing heroin and alcohol seriously increases your risk of overdose. Irish Needle Exchange Forum.

News

[RTE Brainstorm] , Windle, James How a Taliban ban on opium could affect the Irish drugs market. (19 Aug 2021)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Sharp rise in purity of cocaine street deals. (24 Mar 2021)

[RTE investigates] , Dineen, Kieran Sleeping rough in Dublin: 'all I need is a bit of security'. (18 Jan 2021)

[Irish Examiner] , Leonard, James Cork's heroin problem: How did we get here? (17 Dec 2020)

[Extra.ie] , Kelleher, Lynne Ireland three times above European average for drug related deaths. (27 Sep 2020)

[RTE Brainstorm] , Windle, James and Drew, Sinead and Leonard, James Why drug dealing and drug use will increase after Covid-19. (02 Sep 2020)

[Irish Examiner] , Woulfe, Jimmy Senior addiction counsellor voices fears over surge in 'snowballing' in Cork and Limerick. (09 Jul 2020)

[thejournal.ie] , O'Carroll, Austin Opinion: It's time to get real about heroin addiction. It's time to decriminalise this drug. (19 Feb 2020)

[Health Research Board] HRB report sharp rise in cocaine treatment. (07 Nov 2019)

[Irish Examiner] , Dunphy, Liz Dark side of the city: 'The only place heroin is taking you is down into the gutter'. (04 Nov 2019)

[Irish Examiner] , English, Eoin Surge in open drug use in Cork sparks call for more gardaí. (29 Oct 2019)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Fifteen children under five poisoned by heroin and ecstasy. (15 Jul 2019)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Concerns at trends with cannabis, ecstasy and heroin. (07 Jun 2019)

[Irish Times] , Roche, Barry Big increase in heroin addiction in Cork and Kerry. (22 Jan 2019)

[Irish Mirror] , Hughes, Edel Over 300 kids poisoned by household and illegal drugs in Ireland last year. (29 Dec 2018)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Four homeless families living in Coolmine drug rehab centre. (14 Dec 2018)

[Extra.ie] , Lee, John Gardaí say: ‘State should supply heroin to new drugs centre’. (25 Nov 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Dyas, Grace 'Heroin in Ireland is an economic massacre - we have to find a new solution'. (26 Sep 2018)

[Irish Times] , Holland, Kitty ‘Working-class people have become so dehumanised by this drug’. (24 Sep 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh 'Life is so much more chaotic': a day on addiction outreach in Limerick city. (22 Sep 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , McDermott, Stephen The rise of opiates: How Ireland's 'broken' health service is behind a surge in prescription painkillers. (13 Sep 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Halpin, Hayley Bed bugs, used needles and rat droppings - life inside homeless accommodation. (27 Aug 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , Burke, Roisin Falling into addiction: a look at alcohol and drug abuse. (22 Aug 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac From nuns with needles to crash mats for clients. (16 Aug 2018)

[Belfastlive] , Corr, Shauna Belfast heroin addicts supplied via drug mules on buses and trains. (15 Aug 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Simon Community urging State to legally prescribe heroin to users. (14 Aug 2018)

[Belfast Telegraph] Northern Ireland hospital deals with 170 drug overdoses in two months - Two dead from heroin in last few days. (10 Aug 2018)

[The Times] , Sanz, Catherine Injection centre for heroin users may extend to crack and cocaine. (18 Jul 2018)

[Irish Medical Times] , Doyle, Peter Minister has fears over ‘high heroin-related deaths’. (22 Jun 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Fears at revival in stronger cocaine and ecstasy. (08 Jun 2018)

[Hot Press] , Clark, Stuart How to end Ireland's drug deaths epidemic. (07 Jun 2018)

[Irish Times] , Lally, Conor Addicts injecting in subhuman conditions, senior Garda says. (09 May 2018)

[thejournal.ie : The 42] 'Heroin ripped through Dublin... And this place we loved was at the heart of the city’s epidemic'. (31 Dec 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac ‘High’ heroin use by young in regional cities. (30 Dec 2017)

[Evening Echo] , Burke, Roisin 600 heroin addicts in Cork as the debate over needle bins continues. (19 Dec 2017)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Leonard, Victoria Drug Fentanyl 100 times more powerful than morphine is killer, warns Northern Ireland coroner. (22 Sep 2017)

[Irish Times] , Freyne, Patrick ‘We marched on four dealers that night’: Dublin’s anti-drug wars. (16 Sep 2017)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Campbell, Brett Class tramadol with heroin and cocaine, says Northern Ireland medical expert. (01 Aug 2017)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Cocaine use rise as economy returns is one of challenges for State lab. (03 Jul 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Ireland's drug problem: rise of killer synthetic opioids. (07 Jun 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh 'It takes me away from this world for the day': Life as a homeless drug-user on the streets of Dublin. (13 May 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , Ó Fátharta, Conall Half of those treated for problem drug use on heroin. (11 May 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , MacNamee, Garreth A number of city centre overdoses linked to gang's toxic drug mixing in flats complex. (01 May 2017)

[Independent.ie] , Egan, Barry Decriminalise heroin to save lives - Philly. (29 Jan 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , Baker, Noel Study backs screening heroin users for alcohol issues. (27 Dec 2016)

[Independent.ie] , Cusack, Jim The war on drugs is lost... so what do we do now? (13 Nov 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Hauls of heroin and powerful guns surged significantly last year. (07 Oct 2016)

[Irish Times] , O'Halloran, Marie ‘Drug-driving’ test to focus on cocaine, cannabis, heroin. (28 Sep 2016)

[Herald.ie] , O'Keeffe, Alan Fears grow that powerful 'super heroin' will cause more deaths on city streets. (14 Sep 2016)

, Brophy, Daragh How would a Dublin drug injecting room operate? We spoke to the boss of the Sydney centre. (03 Sep 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Gardaí fear further deaths as super-strong synthetic drug spreads. (02 Sep 2016)

[thejournal.ie] , Murphy, Peter 'The whole thing took five minutes': young woman talks about saving the life of a heroin addict. (01 Sep 2016)

[Herald.ie] , Foy, Ken and Grant, Martin and Larkin, Laura Gardai vow crackdown on 'super-heroin' smugglers. (12 Aug 2016)

[thejournal.ie] , Sheils McNamee, Michael Heroin the number one drug for hospital admissions as 'legal high' use grows. (04 Aug 2016)

[Independent.ie] Study shows dramatic increase in heroin deaths. (01 Jun 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac EU police flags hike in massive heroin hauls. (06 Apr 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Just 3% of heroin in Ireland is seized, says UN. (23 Feb 2016)

[Independent.ie] , Larkin, Laura and Dillon, Fiona We've seen children aged 9 taking cocaine and heroin at 11, drugs worker reveals. (25 Jan 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Landmark Cabinet decision backs drug-injecting centres. (16 Dec 2015)

[thejournal.ie] “No matter where you live, you probably have somebody injecting heroin pretty near you”. (15 Dec 2015)

[Independent.ie] , Rooney, Declan Heroin 'is now a major problem in Galway'. (02 Dec 2015)

[Independent.ie] , Courtney, Lorraine Plans for heroin injection centres a step in right direction. (06 Nov 2015)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Eilish Opening injection rooms 'not simple', says Varadkar. (03 Nov 2015)

[RTE News] Should drug addicts have a safe place to inject? (04 Oct 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Baker, Noel Clinic implants State’s first opiate ‘blocker’. (06 Sep 2015)

, Sheils McNamee, Michael Heroin on the rise: 22 mothers taken into drug facility with their children. (15 Jul 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Heroin dealing in Cork to be targeted. (16 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Heroin swoop impact on supply ‘will be significant’. (11 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac DRUGS CRISIS: rising drug potency poses greater danger. (05 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Drug consumption centres reduce risk of overdose. (05 Jun 2015)

[Medical Independent] Availability of antidote to heroin-related overdoses welcomed. (21 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Heroin users to be given antidote. (20 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] Coroner notes rise in heroin deaths in Cork. (19 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Five heroin gangs operating in Cork are mainly users. (19 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Garda: Heroin addicts need treatment, not jail time. (15 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Needle exchange for 13,700 drug users. (14 May 2015)

[Wexford People] , Hayden, Esther Dramatic increase in heroin use in Wexford town. (24 Mar 2015)

[Dublin People] , Fetherstonhaugh, Neil Minister calls for drug plan ‘now’. (13 Mar 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Connolly, Shaun Fight against drug abuse needs dedicated minister, says Sinn Fein. (06 Mar 2015)

[Herald.ie] , Fegan, Joyce Radical legislation to allow for supervised injecting centres for heroin users. (16 Feb 2015)

[Limerick Post] , Jacques, Alan Violent undercurrent to Limerick City’s drug problem. (12 Feb 2015)

[thejournal.ie] ‘Worse now than the heroin epidemic of the 80s’ – Christy Burke on drugs in Dublin. (29 Jan 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac No rogue heroin circulating in Cork, tests show. (12 Dec 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Surge in the use of heroin across Cork. (06 Oct 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Another look at how alcohol can be more dangerous than heroin. (20 Sep 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Drug contains ‘highly toxic’ chemicals. (20 Sep 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Cionnaith, Fiachra 10k treated for substance abuse in 3 months. (15 Aug 2014)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom A quarter of all addicts are outside the capital. (27 Jul 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Ireland has third highest drug-related fatalities. (28 May 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Cocaine and heroin involved in majority of serious drugs cases before courts. (05 May 2014)

[BBC News Northern Ireland] , Fitzpatrick, Michael Northern Ireland needle exchange scheme numbers rise 50% in four years. (16 Apr 2014)

[Independent.ie] , O'Connor, Niall and Griffin, Sam Employers could be held liable for drink-driving staff. (21 Mar 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Column: Legislation changes our drugs landscape – but it isn’t a complete solution. (20 Mar 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Column: Philip Seymour Hoffman’s death challenges our cosy stereotypes about addicts. (06 Feb 2014)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom Explosion in new 'designer drugs' sparks fears for safety of users. (25 Dec 2013)

, Fleming, David Ireland must act to combat its growing heroin problem. (03 Dec 2013)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom Gang 'supermarket' with shelves of drugs and guns found by gardai. (28 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire Fighting back against drug’s stranglehold. (19 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire Special report day 1: The real story behind heroin use. (18 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Two thirds of 4,200 overdoses intentional. (11 Nov 2013)

[breakingnews.ie] Online survey highlights drug use among 'thirty somethings'. (10 Nov 2013)

[The Kerryman] Heroin returning to Tralee streets. (30 Oct 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Spike in crime linked to heroin use. (22 Oct 2013)

[rte.ie] Rise in addiction to cocktail of alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepine. (14 Oct 2013)

[thejournal.ie] FBI shuts down site that sold $80m worth of drugs, hitmen services and other illegal items. (02 Oct 2013)

[thejournal.ie] Drug use outside Dublin continues to grow, says report. (06 Sep 2013)

[Independent.ie] , Cusack, Jim Two dozen for court after undercover operation. (30 Jun 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Lucey, Anne Heroin blamed for eight deaths in Kerry town in two years. (01 Jun 2013)

Health Research Board. Alcohol and Drug Research Unit. [Health Research Board] New report reveals the latest drug trends in Europe. (28 May 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Stack, Sarah 75% of Dublin heroin addicts also hooked on other drugs, study finds. (28 May 2013)

The Economist. [The Economist] The Trainspotting generation: the government is undermining a successful treatment system. (UK). (22 Mar 2013)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Eilish Alcohol is now responsible for 25pc of all drug-related deaths. (18 Feb 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Heroin haul second biggest in State’s history, say gardaí. (19 Jan 2013)

[irishhealth.com] , Condon, Deborah What drug affects arousal in men? (19 Jan 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Black, Fergus Doctor prescribed strong tranquilliser to teen heroin addict. (09 Jan 2013)

[RTE News] Two Cork deaths linked to strong batch of heroin. (05 Oct 2012)

[Medical Independent] , Fogarty, James The remedy as the problem. (04 Oct 2012)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Kilpatrick, Chris Cut-price heroin is now commonplace in Northern Ireland, says Coroner. (03 Aug 2012)

[Irish Medical Times] Surge expected in liver cirrhosis cases. (19 Apr 2012)

[RTE News] Sinn Féin wants refocus on drugs crisis. (16 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , Gantly, Dara Ireland has most users of heroin in EU. (15 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , Culliton, Gary Painkillers ‘kill more people than heroin and cocaine’. (10 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] Prescribing heroin reduces abuse of the drug. (08 Jul 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , O'Sullivan, Cathal Out on a limb — heroin users beyond the pale. (26 May 2011)

[European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction & Health Research Board] Latest drug trends across Europe. (06 Nov 2008)

[Sunday Independent] Report finds methadone contributes to more deaths than heroin. (27 Jan 2008)

[British Medical Journal] Prescribing heroin in Europe. (17 Jan 2008)

[Scottish Executive] Scottish prevention campaign says smoking heroin just as dangerous as injecting. (15 Aug 2006)

[BBC News Online] Global meth users outnumber cocaine and heroin users combined. (11 May 2006)

This list was generated on Fri Oct 22 04:06:43 2021 IST.