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Cadogan, Cathal A and Ryan, Cristín and Cahir, Caitriona and Bradley, Colin P and Bennett, Kathleen (2018) Benzodiazepine and Z-drug prescribing in Ireland: analysis of national prescribing trends from 2005-2015. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , Early online .

Wall, Marianne and Lambert, Sharon and Horan, Aidan (2017) An evaluation of practitioner's experience of service users seeking community detoxification from benzodiazepines. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , Early online , pp. 1-7.

Millar, Sean (2017) Sixth ESPAD survey report published. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 60, Winter 2017 , pp. 10-11.

Guiney, Ciara (2016) Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Act 2016. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 59, Autumn 2016 , pp. 4-5.

Rowntree, R and Sweeney, J and Crumlish, N and Flynn, G (2016) How do we compare with best practice? A completed audit of benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic prescribing. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , Early online .

Pike, Brigid (2016) Terminology and information on drugs. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 57, Spring 2016 , p. 13.

Boyd, A and Van de Velde, Sarah and Pivette, M and Ten Have, M and Florescu, S and O'Neill, S and Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel and Vilagut, G and Haro, J M and Alonso, J and Kovess-Masfety, Viviane (2015) Gender differences in psychotropic use across Europe: results from a large cross-sectional, population-based study. European Psychiatry , 30 , (6) , pp. 778-788.

Steinkellner, Thomas and Montgomery, Therese R and Hofmaier, Tina and Kudlacek, Oliver and Yang, Jae-Won and Rickhag, Mattias and Jung, Gangsoo and Lubec, Gert and Gether, Ulrik and Freissmuth, Michael and Sitte, Harald H (2015) Amphetamine action at the cocaine- and antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter is modulated by αCaMKII. The Journal of Neuroscience , 35 , (21) , pp. 8258-8271.

Keenan, Rosemarie and O'Hare, James (2014) Down in the wards: point prevalence of antidepressant and benzodiazepine use. Irish Medical Journal , 107 , (3) .

Griffin, Eve and Corcoran, Paul and Cassidy, Linda and O'Carroll, Amanda and Perry, Ivan J and Bonner, Brendan (2014) Characteristics of hospital-treated intentional drug overdose in Ireland and Northern Ireland. BMJ Open , 4 , (7) , e005557.

Brennan, Rebekah and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2014) Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 46 , (3) , pp. 243-251.

Horgan, Justine and Long, Jean (2013) Use of sedatives or tranquillisers and anti-depressants in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 44, Winter 2012 , pp. 1-3.

Gusmão, Ricardo and Quintao, Sonia and McDaid, David and Arensman, Ella and van Audenhove, Chantal and Coffey, Claire and Varnik, Airi and Varnik, Peeter and Coyne, James and Hegerl, Ulrich (2013) Antidepressant utilization and suicide in Europe: an ecological multi-national study. PLoS ONE , 8 , (6) .

Kolshus, Eric and Freyne, Aideen and Callanan, I and Cooney, C (2013) Psychotropic prescribing in the oldest old attending a geriatric psychiatry service: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 30 , (3) , pp. 187-196.

Long, Jean and Horgan, Justine (2012) Drug use among the general population, by regional drugs task force area. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 43, Autumn 2012 , pp. 24-27.

Corcoran, Paul and Reulbach, U and Keeley, HS and Perry, Ivan J and Hawton, K and Arensman, Ella (2010) Use of analgesics in intentional drug overdose presentations to hospital before and after the withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market. BMC Clinical Pharmacology , 18 , (10) , p. 6.

Long, Jean and Lyons, Suzi (2009) Sedative, tranquilliser and anti-depressant use in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 30, Summer 2009 , pp. 7-10.

Galvin, Brian (2009) Use of minor tranquillisers and sedatives in the WRDTF area. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 30, Summer 2009 , pp. 10-11.

Long, Jean (2008) EMCDDA update on GHB/GBL. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 26, Summer 2008 , p. 19.

Strickland, Ribert A (1996) Historical vignette. Ether drinking in Ireland. Mayo Clinic Proceedings , 71 , (10) , p. 1015.


[rte.ie] , Bowers, Fergal 40% jump in illegal prescription drugs seized. (17 Apr 2018)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] Close to one million units of illegal medicines detained by the HPRA in 2017. (17 Apr 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , Shanahan, Catherine Study highlights long-term prescription drug use. (03 Apr 2018)

[Independent.ie] , Byrne, Katie The hidden epidemic: How Ireland has become addicted to benzodiazepines. (27 Feb 2018)

[Irish Times] , McGreevy, Ronan Abuse of sedatives leading to rise in ‘violence, aggression’ among teens. (23 Feb 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Callaghan, Helen Tranquilliser trap: the pain of pill addiction. (21 Jul 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Ryan, Orla Fears 'risky new drug trend' could develop amid crackdown on prescription drugs. (05 May 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Laws tackle booming trade in sedatives and sleeping tablets. (05 May 2017)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] HPRA detains 673,906 dosage units of illegal medicines in 2016. (13 Mar 2017)

[Independent.ie] , Bielenberg, Kim The drugs don't work - psyhciatric guru Ivor Brown says he would never give antidepressents to anyone. (12 Feb 2017)

[Irish Medical Times] , Shannon, June Sleeping pill-related deaths increase by 41%. (16 Jan 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire High rate of tranquiliser use among over-65s. (12 Jan 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Seizures of illicit prescription drugs soaring. (03 Dec 2016)

[Medical Independent] , Reilly, Catherine Other drugs ‘could fill the void’ following abused drug controls — HSE addiction specialist. (16 Nov 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Doherty, Caroline Million doses of counterfeit medicines seized. (09 Sep 2016)

Associated Press. [thejournal.ie] Elephant sedative emerges as new threat in US overdose battle. (31 Jul 2016)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Eilish Older people wrongly given sedative drugs - doctor. (29 Jul 2016)

[Department of Health] Minister Harris brings Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Bill 2016 before the Oireachtas. (23 Jun 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Cases of drug addiction treatment continue to rise. (01 Jun 2016)

[thejournal.ie] , Sheils McNamee, Michael Party drug ketamine could be used for difficult-to-sedate patients. (27 Feb 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Brien, Kelly State ‘wastes €34m a year on unneeded anti-depressants’. (10 Oct 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac 400,000 tablets seized as crisis deepens. (11 Aug 2015)

[thejournal.ie] Ketamine use is on the rise in Ireland – who’s using it and where does it come from? (13 Jun 2015)

[Independent.ie] , Byrne, Katie Antidepressants: the real story behind their increase in use and the side-effects. (13 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Barry, Siobhan Special report: A state of high anxiety over antidepressant prescription. (19 Mar 2015)

[Vice] , Costello, Norma Irish addicts can't get help unless they're on the 'right' mix of drugs. (05 Feb 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Minor tranquillisers ‘cause 40% of overdoses’. (07 Oct 2014)

[Health Research Board] New report reveals the latest drug trends in Europe: HRB compares situation in Ireland with European findings. (27 May 2014)

[irishhealth.com] Thousands of illegal meds detained. (26 May 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Tranquillisers and methadone send drug-related deaths soaring by 30%. (11 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Two thirds of 4,200 overdoses intentional. (11 Nov 2013)

[Irish Medical Times] Data on antidepressant prescribing now available. (01 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Rogers, Stephen Lives ‘in danger’ from fake medicine. (17 Sep 2013)

[Irish Medical Times] , Reilly, Catherine DoH clarifies policy on handwritten scripts. (04 Sep 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Cutting jail benzo use reduces violence. (03 Dec 2012)


Health Research Board. (2016) National Drug-Related Deaths Index 2004 to 2014 data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

O'Gorman, Aileen and Driscoll, Alan and Moore, Kerri and Roantree, Doireann (2016) Outcomes: drug harms, policy harms, poverty and inequality. Dublin: Clondalkin Drug and Alcohol Task Force.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol. (2014) Drug use in Ireland and Northern Ireland 2010/11 drug prevalence survey: polydrug use results. Bulletin 5. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2014) Report on the risk assessment of 3,4-dichloro-N-{[1-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]methyl}benzamide in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs & Public Health Information and Research Branch. (2012) Drug use in Ireland and Northern Ireland. 2010/11 drug prevalence survey: sedatives or tranquillisers and anti-depressants results. Bulletin 6. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs & Public Health Information and Research Branch.

Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde (2011) Abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Dublin: Irish Psychiatry.

Drugscope. Roberts, Marcus (2010) Young people’s drug and alcohol treatment at the crossroads: what it’s for, where it’s at and how to make it even better. London: Drugscope.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs & Public Health Information and Research Branch. (2009) Drug use in Ireland and Northern Ireland 2006/2007 drug prevalence survey: sedatives or tranquillisers, and anti-depressants results: Bulletin 6. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs.

Flynn, Kealan (2009) Minor tranquillisers and sedatives: use and misuse in the West of Ireland. Galway: Western Region Drugs Task Force.

Health Service Executive South. O'Mahony Carey, Sinead (2008) A guide to substance misuse for medical professionals. Tipperary: Health Service Executive.

McKeown, Kieran and Haase, Trutz and Pratschke, Jonathan and Lanigan, Cathy and Burke, Shane and Murphy, Niamh and Allen, Lynda (2008) The well-being of parents, children & neighbourhoods: a national study of families in Respond! housing estates. Dublin: Respond Housing Association.

National Advisory Committee on Drugs, Drug and Alcohol Information and Research Unit. (2007) Drug Use in Ireland and Northern Ireland: 2002/2003 drug prevalence survey: sedatives, tranquillisers or anti-depressants results: bulletin 6. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs & Public Health Information and Research Branch.

McKeown, Kieran and Fitzgerald, Grace (2006) Experiences and attitudes of early school leavers: a survey of early school leavers in Ballymun & Mayo. Dublin: EQUAL Youth Project.

World Health Organization. (1989) WHO expert committee on drug dependence. Twenty-fifth report. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Evidence resource

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. [UNODC] (2016) Terminology and information on drugs. New York: United Nations. 86 p.

Bazian. [NHS Choices] (2016) Antidepressants linked to suicide and aggression in teens. London: NHS Choices. NHS Choices: Behind the headlines

BMA Board of Science. [BMA] (2015) Prescribed drugs associated with dependence and withdrawal – building a consensus for action. Analysis report. London: British Medical Association. 44 p.

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. [RACGP] (2015) Prescribing drugs of dependence in general practice, Part B - benzodiazepines. Victoria: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. 101 p.

Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network. Abdulrahim, D and Bowden-Jones, O [Public Health England] . (2015) Guidance on the clinical management of acute and chronic harms of club drugs and novel psychoactive substances. London: NEPTUNE. 335 p.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. [UNODC] (2012) Global SMART update 2012. Update 8. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 9 p.

Keenaghan, Celia and Sweeney, Joanna and McGowan, Bernie . (2012) Care options for primary care: the development of best practice guidance on social prescribing for primary care teams. Dublin: Keenaghan Research and Communication. 71 p.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. [EMCDDA] (2012) Legal topic overviews: classification of controlled drugs. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Lingford-Hughes, AR and Welch, S and Peters, L and Nutt, DJ [British Association for Psychopharmacology] . (2012) BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP. Sage. Journal of Psychopharmacology 54 p. DOI: 10.1177/0269881112444324

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. [SAMHSA, US] (2012) Clinical drug testing in primary care. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 96 p. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 30

Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. [National Treatment Agency (UK)] (2011) A summary of the health harms of drugs. London: Department of Health & National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. 81 p.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. [UNODC] (2010) Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of methaqualone / mecloqualone. For use by national drug analysis laboratories. Vienna: United Nations. 30 p.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. [Home Office UK] (2008) GBL & 1,4-BD: Assessment of risk to the individual and communities in the UK. London: Home Office. 44 p.

McCarthy, Greg and Myers, Bronwyn and Siegfried, Nandi [The Cochrane Library] . (2005) Treatment for methaqualone dependence in adults. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) . No.: CD004146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004146.pub2

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 143 - Misuse of drugs [31711/17]. (06 Jul 2017)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answers 508-509 - Medicinal products data [psychoactive drugs monitoring] [17648/17, 17651/17]. (11 Apr 2017)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 36 - Prescriptions data [Opioids and sedatives] [37968/16]. (01 Dec 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 68 - Misuse of drugs [Sedatives] [20705/16]. (12 Jul 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 293 - Misuse of drugs [3004/16]. (02 Feb 2016)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 78 - Misuse of drugs [36263/15]. (22 Oct 2015)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 187 - Legislative programme [benzodiazepines, z-drugs] [6395/15]. (12 Feb 2015)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Drugs dealing. (27 Nov 2014)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 635 - Medicinal products availability [16438/14]. (08 Apr 2014)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 277 - Misuse of drugs [12721/14]. (13 Mar 2014)

[Oireachtas] Government's priorities for the year ahead: statements (resumed) (continued). (06 Mar 2014)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 8. Misuse of drugs [39927/13]. (26 Sep 2013)

[Oireachtas] Written answers - Misuse of drugs [49108/12]. (08 Nov 2012)

[Oireachtas] Topical issue debate - Suicide prevention. (08 Dec 2011)


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Robson, Philip (2009) Forbidden drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Levinthal, Charles F (2008) Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston ; London: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon .

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Herscovitch, Arthur G (1999) Everything you need to know about drug abuse. Need to know library New York: Rosen .

Brick, John and Erickson, Carlton (1998) Drugs, the brain, and behavior: the pharmacology of abuse and dependence. New York: Haworth Medical Press .

Hammersley, Diane (1995) Counselling people on prescribed drugs. Counselling in Practice London: Sage .


McDonald, Niall (2006) The portrayal of antidepressants in the Irish newspapers. Masters thesis, Dublin City University.


HRB National Drugs Library. (2018) Factsheet: Sedatives and tranquilisers - the Irish situation. Dublin: HRB National Drugs Library.

This list was generated on Tue Apr 24 03:20:34 2018 GMT.