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Article

Sárosi, Péter (2024) The challenge of the emerging semi-synthetic cannabinoid market in Europe. Drug Reporter .

O'Shea, Aileen (2024) Coagulopathy and cannabinoids: what the radiologist should know. European Radiology , 34 , (7) , pp. 4538-4539.

Barone, Rossella and Pelletti, Guido and Giorgetti, Arianna and Mohamed, Susan and Pascali, Jennifer Paola and Sablone, Sara and Introna, Francesco and Pelotti, Susi (2024) Validation and application of a method for the quantification of 137 drugs of abuse and new psychoactive substances in hair. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis , 243 .

O'Mahony, Brian and O'Malley, Andrew and Kerrigan, Olan and McDonald, Colm (2024) HHC-induced psychosis: a case series of psychotic illness triggered by a widely available semisynthetic cannabinoid. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , Early online , pp. 1-4.

van Amsterdam, Jan and Burgess, Nicholas and van den Brink, Wim (2023) Legal approaches to new psychoactive substances: first empirical findings. European Addiction Research , 29 , (5) , pp. 363-372.

Liu, Jessica and Tan, Andy S L and Lee, Juhan (2023) Vaping of cannabis, cannabidiol, and synthetic cannabis among US sexual minority youths. JAMA Network Open , 6 , (8) .

Roque-Bravo, Rita and Silva, Rafaela Sofia and Malheiro, Rui F and Carmo, Helena and Carvalho, Félix and da Silva, Diana Dias and Silva, João Pedro (2023) Synthetic cannabinoids: a pharmacological and toxicological overview. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 63 , pp. 187-209.

Adley, Mark and Atkinson, A M and Sumnall, Harry R (2023) Including the multiply excluded: a mixed methods study exploring intragroup stigma towards people who use synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy , 30 , (3) , pp. 312-324.

Pulver, Benedikt and Fischmann, Svenja and Gallegos, Ana and Christie, Rachel (2023) EMCDDA framework and practical guidance for naming synthetic cannabinoids. Drug Testing and Analysis , 15 , (3) , pp. 255-276.

Andrews, Rachael and Jorge, Rita and Christie, Rachel and Gallegos, Ana (2023) From JWH-018 to OXIZIDS: structural evolution of synthetic cannabinoids in the European Union from 2008 to present day. Drug Testing and Analysis , 15 , (4) , pp. 378-387. (In Press)

Kronstrand, Robert and Norman, Caitlyn and Vikingsson, Svante and Biemans, Anoek and Valencia Crespo, Bryan and Edwards, Darren and Fletcher, Daniel and Gilbert, Nicolas and Persson, Mattias and Reid, Robert and Semenova, Olga and Al Teneiji, Faisal and Wu, Xiongyu and Dahlén, Johan and NicDaéid, Niamh and Tarbah, Fuad and Sutcliffe, Oliver B and McKenzie, Craig and Gréen, Henrik (2022) The metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoids ADB-BUTINACA and ADB-4en-PINACA and their detection in forensic toxicology casework and infused papers seized in prisons. Drug Testing and Analysis , 14 , (4) , pp. 634-652.

Lee, Keane Zhi Hao and Wang, Ziteng and Fong, Ching Yee and Goh, Evelyn Mei Ling and Moy, Hooi Yan and Chan, Eric Chun Yong (2022) Identification of optimal urinary biomarkers of synthetic cannabinoids BZO-HEXOXIZID, BZO-POXIZID, 5F-BZO-POXIZID, and BZO-CHMOXIZID for illicit abuse monitoring. Clinical Chemistry .

Mohr, Amanda L A and Logan, Barry K and Fogarty, Melissa F and Krotulski, Alex J and Papsun, Donna M and Kacinko, Sherri L and Huestis, Marilyn A and Ropero-Miller, Jeri D (2022) Reports of adverse events associated with use of novel psychoactive substances, 2017–2020: a review. Journal of Analytical Toxicology , 46 , (6) , e116-e185.

Munger, Kaelas R and Jensen, Robert P and Strongin, Robert M (2022) Vaping cannabinoid acetates leads to ketene formation. Chemical Research in Toxicology , (Working paper) .

HSE drugs.ie. (2022) HSE and national voluntary drug and alcohol sector emerging drug trend monitoring pilot project. Cannabinoid market survey, quarter 1 2022. drugs.ie Feature .

Craft, Sam and Dunn, Michael and Vidler, Dan and Officer, Jane and Blagbrough, Ian S and Pudney, Christopher R and Henderson, Graeme and Abouzeid, Ahmed and Dargan, Paul I and Eddleston, Michael and Cooper, Jamie and Hill, Simon L and Roper, Clair and Freeman, Tom P and Thomas, Simon H L (2022) Trends in hospital presentations following analytically confirmed synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist exposure before and after implementation of the 2016 UK Psychoactive Substances Act. Addiction , 117 , (11) , pp. 2899-2906.

Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet and Codina, Jana and Villanueva-Blasco, Víctor José and García-Algar, Óscar and Andreu-Fernández, Vicente (2022) Detection of the synthetic cannabinoids AB-CHMINACA, ADB-CHMINACA, MDMB-CHMICA, and 5F-MDMB-PINACA in biological matrices: a systematic review. Biology , 11 , (5) .

Bahji, Anees and Breward, Natasha and Duff, Whitney and Absher, Nafisa and Patten, Scott B and Alcorn, Jane and Mousseau, Darrell D (2022) Cannabinoids in the management of behavioral, psychological, and motor symptoms of neurocognitive disorders: a mixed studies systematic review. Journal of Cannabis Research , 4 .

Downer, Eric J (2022) Editorial. Role of cannabinoids in inflammation. Molecules , 27 , (2) .

Velayudhan, Latha and McGoohan, Katie and Bhattacharyya, Sagnik (2021) Safety and tolerability of natural and synthetic cannabinoids in adults aged over 50 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine , 18 , (3) , e1003524.

Gray, Paul and Ralphs, Rob and Williams, Lisa (2021) The use of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) within the homeless population: motivations, harms and the implications for developing an appropriate response. Addiction Research & Theory , 29 , (1) , pp. 1-10.

Fattore, Liana and Marti, Matteo and Mostallino, Rafaela and Castelli, Maria Paola (2020) Sex and gender differences in the effects of novel psychoactive substances. Brain Sciences , 10 , (9) .

Kourouni, Ismini and Mourad, Bashar and Khouli, Hassan and Shapiro, Janet M and Mathew, Joseph P (2020) Critical illness secondary to synthetic cannabinoid ingestion. JAMA Network Open , 3 , (7) , e208516.

Lipnik-Štangelj, Metoda and Razinger, Barbara (2020) A regulatory take on cannabis and cannabinoids for medicinal use in the European Union. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology , 71 , (1) , pp. 12-18.

Alam, Ryan M and Keating, John J (2020) Adding more "spice" to the pot: a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of newly emerging heterocyclic synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. Drug Testing and Analysis , 12 , (3) , pp. 297-315.

Freeman, Tom P and Hindocha, Chandni and Green, Sebastian F and Bloomfield, Michael AP (2019) Medicinal use of cannabis based products and cannabinoids. BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) , 365 , l1141.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2017) Cannabis is worth bothering about. Drug and Alcohol Findings Hot Topic , (10 July 2017) .

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn (2017) User experiences of development of dependence on the synthetic cannabinoids, 5f-AKB48 and 5F-PB-22, and subsequent withdrawal syndromes. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction , 15 , (3) , pp. 565-579.

Fischer, Benedikt and Russell, Cayley and Sabioni, Pamela and van den Brink, Wim and Le Foll, Bernard and Hall, Wayne and Rehm, Jürgen and Room, Robin (2017) Lower-risk cannabis use guidelines: a comprehensive update of evidence and recommendations. American Journal of Public Health , 107 , (8) , e1-e12.

Boyle, Michelle (2016) 4th International Conference on Novel Psychoactive Substances, Budapest, 30‒31 May 2016. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 59, Autumn 2016 , pp. 19-20.

Pike, Brigid (2016) Terminology and information on drugs. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 57, Spring 2016 , p. 13.

Prenderville, Jack A and Kelly, Áine M and Downer, Eric J (2015) The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis. British Journal of Pharmacology , 172 , (16) , pp. 3950-3963.

Lutge, Elizabeth L and Gray, Andy and Siegfried, Nandi (2013) The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , (4) .

Galvin, Brian (2013) Annual review of the drug situation in Europe. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 46, Summer 2013 , pp. 5-6.

Kavanagh, Pierce and Grigoryev, A and Melnik, A and Simonov, A (2012) The identification of the urinary metabolites of 3-(4-Methoxybenzoyl)-1-Pentylindole (RCS-4), a novel cannabimimetic, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Toxicology , 36 , (5) , pp. 303-311.

Grigoryev, A and Kavanagh, Pierce and Melnik, A (2012) The detection of the urinary metabolites of 3-[(adamantan-1-yl)carbonyl]-1-pentylindole (AB-001), a novel cannabimimetic, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Drug Testing and Analysis , 4 , (6) , pp. 519-524.

Connolly, Johnny (2011) Legal update. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 37, Spring 2011 , pp. 25-26.

Long, Jean (2010) Conference on psychoactive drugs sold in head shops and online. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 33, Spring 2010 , pp. 1-3.

Report

UNODC Laboratory and Scientific Service. (2024) Current NPS threats volume VII. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2024) The challenge of new psychoactive substances - a technical update. Vienna: United Nations.

United Kingdom. Home Office. (2024) 001/2024: The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2024 and The Misuse of Drugs and Misuse of Drugs (Designation) (England and Wales and Scotland) (Amendment and Revocation) Regulations 2024. London: Home Office.

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2024) Ireland: national report for 2023 - drug markets and crime. Dublin: Health Research Board.

Adolescent Addiction Service. Murray, Denis (2024) Adolescent addiction service report 2024. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Chou, Roger and Ahmed, Azrah Y and Bougatsos, Christina and Morasco, Benjamin J and Dana, Tracy and Fu, Rongwei (2024) Living systematic review on cannabis and other plant-based treatments for chronic pain. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Forensic Science Ireland. (2023) Forensic Science Ireland annual report 2022. Dublin: Forensic Science Ireland.

Center for Forensic Science Research & Education. (2023) Cannabinoid – NPS Discovery new drug monograph. United States: Center for Forensic Science Research & Education.

An Garda Siochana. (2023) An Garda Síochána annual report 2022. Dublin: An Garda Siochana.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2023) Current NPS threats volume VI. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. (2023) Cumyl-PeGaClone and other recently encountered synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. London: Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs.

Center for Forensic Science Research & Education. (2023) NPS Discovery - New drug monograph: ADB-5’Br-PINACA. Pennsylvania: Center for Forensic Science Research & Education.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Ujváry, István and Evans-Brown, Michael and Gallegos, Ana and Planchuelo, Gregorio and de Morais, Joanna and Christie, Rachel and Jorge, Rita and Sedefov, Roumen (2023) Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related substances. Technical report. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2023) WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence forty-fifth report. Geneva: World Health Organization.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2023) UN convention decisions 1961 - 2022. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2022) Current NPS threats: volume V. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

National Forensic Laboratory Information System. (2022) NFLIS-Drug 2021 annual report. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Diversion Control Division.

Krotulski, Alex J and Shinefeld, Jennifer and Fogarty, Melissa F and DeBord, Joshua and Logan, Barry K (2022) CH-FUBIATA. Pennsylvania: Center for Forensic Science Research & Education.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2022) New psychoactive substances: 25 years of early warning and response in Europe. An update from the EU Early Warning System. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Krotulski, Alex J and Farrell, Ryan and Mohaupt, Amanda and Fogarty, Melissa F and Walton, Sara E and Logan, Barry K (2022) CH-PIATA. Pennsylvania: Center for Forensic Science Research & Education.

World Health Organization. (2022) WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence: forty-fourth report. Geneva: World Health Organization.

National Poisons Information Centre. (2021) National Poisons Information Centre annual report 2020. Dublin: National Poisons Information Centre.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2021) UNODC Synthetic drug strategy 2021-2025. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Krotulski, Alex J and Farrell, Ryan and Mohaupt, Amanda and Fogarty, Melissa F and Logan, Barry K (2021) NPS discovery: BZO-CHMOXIZID. Pennsylvania: Center for Forensic Science Research & Education.

Auwärter, Volker and de Morais, Joanna and Gallegos, Ana and Evans-Browns, Michael and Christie, Rachel and Jorge, Rita and Sedefov, Roumen (2021) Synthetic cannabinoids in Europe – a review. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Public Health England. (2021) Drug Harms Assessment and Response Team. Quarterly summary for professionals: May 2021. London: Public Health England.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Risk assessment report on a new psychoactive substance: methyl 3,3-dimethyl-2-{[1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-indazole-3-car- bonyl]amino}butanoate (MDMB-4en-PINACA) in accordance with Article 5c of Regulation (EC) No 1920/2006 (as amended). Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2021) Cannabis-based medicinal products. London: NICE.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Risk assessment report on a new psychoactive substance: methyl 2-{[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino}-3,3-dime- thylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BICA) in accordance with Article 5c of Regulation (EC) No 1920/2006 (as amended). Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Department of Social Welfare, City of Zurich. Schori, Dominique (2020) C-EHRN briefing paper. Amsterdam: Correlation – European Harm Reduction Network.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2020) EMCDDA technical report on the new psychoactive substance methyl 3,3-dimethyl-2-{[1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl]amino}butanoate (MDMB-4en-PINACA). Lisbon: EMCDDA.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2020) EMCDDA technical report on the new psychoactive substance methyl 2-{[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino}-3,3- dimethylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BICA). Lisbon: EMCDDA.

Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (2020) WHO scheduling recommendations on cannabis and cannabis-related substances. Commission on Narcotic Drugs - reconvened sixty-third session Vienna, 2–4 December 2020. Vienna: United Nations Economic and Social Council.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2020) EMCDDA initial report on the new psychoactive substance methyl 3,3-dimethyl-2-(1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)butanoate (MDMB-4en-PINACA). Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2020) EMCDDA initial report on the new psychoactive substance methyl 2-({[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BICA). Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. (2020) Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA). An updated harms assessment and a review of classification and scheduling under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and its Regulations. London: Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs.

Global SMART Programme. (2020) Synthetic drugs in East and Southeast Asia. Latest developments and challenges. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2019) Developments in the European cannabis market. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2018) Report on the risk assessment of methyl 2-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl]amino}-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (5F-MDMB-PINACA; 5F-ADB) in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Risk Assessments. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2018) Fentanils and synthetic cannabinoids: driving greater complexity into the drug situation. An update from the EU Early Warning System. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

CDC Health Alert Network. (2018) Outbreak of life-threatening coagulopathy associated with synthetic cannabinoids use. Atlanta: US Department of Health & Human Services.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2018) Report on the risk assessment of N-(1-Amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-CHMINACA) in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2018) Report on the risk assessment of 1-(4-Cyanobutyl)-N-(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (CUMYL-4CN-BINACA) in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017) 39th Expert Committee on Drug Dependence: technical documents. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Manchester Health & Care Commissioning. (2017) Spice. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCRAs). Manchester Health & Care Commissioning.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Perspectives on drugs: Synthetic cannabinoids in Europe. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Forensic Science Ireland. (2017) Forensic Science Ireland annual report 2016. Dublin: Forensic Science Ireland.

Ryan, George (2017) Novel psychoactive substances: synthetic cannabinoids - best practice treatment approaches. London: SMMGP.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Report on the risk assessment of methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (MDMB-CHMICA) in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn (2015) A community based study of synthetic cannabinoid use in Co. Monaghan, Ireland. Monaghan: Teach na Daoine Family Resource Centre.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) Perspectives on drugs: Synthetic cannabinoids in Europe. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) New psychoactive substances in Europe. An update from the EU Early Warning System March 2015. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Novel Psychoactive Treatment UK Network. Abdulrahim, D and Bowden-Jones, O (2015) Guidance on the clinical management of acute and chronic harms of club drugs and novel psychoactive substances. London: NEPTUNE.

European Commission Directorate-General for Justice. (2014) New psychoactive substances projects, studies and research funded by the European Commission. Brussels: European Commission.

Laboratory and Scientific Section, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2013) The challenge of new psychoactive substances. A report from the Global SMART Programme. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. (2012) Further consideration of the synthetic cannabinoids. London: Home Office.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2012) Global SMART update 2012. Update 8. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2012) EMCDDA–Europol 2011 annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA. In accordance with Article 10 of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA on the information exchange, risk assessment and control of new psychoactive substances. Lisbon: EMCDDA & EUROPOL.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2011) EMCDDA–Europol 2010 annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction & Europol.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2010) EMCDDA–Europol 2009 annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2009) EMCDDA 2009 thematic paper: Understanding the 'Spice' phenomenon. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. (2009) Consideration of the major cannabinoid agonists. London: Home Office.

Webpage

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2024) EU drug market: New psychoactive substances — Distribution and supply in Europe: semi-synthetic cannabinoids. URL: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/eu-drug-...

Center for Forensic Science Research & Education. (2024) Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) trend reports. URL: https://www.cfsre.org/nps-discovery/trend-reports

Center for Forensic Science Research & Education. (2024) NPS discovery dashboard [United States]. URL: https://www.npsdiscovery.org/reports/dashboard/

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2023) UNODC Early warning advisory (EWA) on new psychoactive substances (NPS). URL: https://www.unodc.org/LSS/Home/NPS

HSE drugs.ie. (2023) Drug trend updates and warnings. URL: https://www.drugs.ie/drugs_info/drug_trend_updates...

WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2023) Expert Committee on Drug Dependence information repository. URL: https://ecddrepository.org/en

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2023) United Nations toolkit on synthetic drugs. URL: https://syntheticdrugs.unodc.org/

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2022) Spotlight on… Synthetic cannabinoids. URL: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/synthetic-cann...

HSE drugs.ie. (2021) Synthetic cannabinoids. URL: https://www.drugs.ie/drugtypes/drug/headshop_drugs...

FactSheet

HRB National Drugs Library. (2024) Factsheet: New psychoactive substances (NPS) - the Irish situation. Dublin: HRB National Drugs Library.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2024) What are NPS? Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2023) DrugFacts: Synthetic cannabinoids (K2/Spice). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Correlation – European Harm Reduction Network. (2021) Cannabis Quick Tests and synthetic cannabinoids. Amsterdam: Correlation – European Harm Reduction Network.

Drugs.ie. (2017) The strength of your cannabinoid may be higher than you think. Synthetic Cannabinoids (‘Spice’). Dublin: drugs.ie.

Cunningham, Andrew and Gallegos, Ana and Francis, Will and Evans-Browns, Michael (2015) Harms arising from the use of synthetic cannabinoid products. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Ballyfermot Advance Project, Base Youth and Child Centre, Ballyfermot. (2010) Legal highs & headshops: some basic facts. Dublin: Ballyfermot Drugs Task Force.

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Question 664 – Substance misuse [HHC] [17930/24]. (23 Apr 2024)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Question 270 – Substance misuse [HHC hexahydrocannabinol]. (22 Feb 2024)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate, Topical issue debate – Departmental regulations [Synthetic cannabinoid HHC]. (20 Feb 2024)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Question 1499 – Misuse of drugs [cannabinoids] [56526/23]. (17 Jan 2024)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Questions 236 - Health Service Executive [Cannabinoids in vapes] [34427/23]. (12 Jul 2023)

[Oireachtas] Dáil Éireann debate. Questions 456, 620, 621, 622 - Substance misuse [Cannabinoid vaping] [30556/23, 30553/23, 30554/23, 30555/23]. (27 Jun 2023)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 453 - Controlled drug sales [Black Mamba] [14008/12]. (13 Mar 2012)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 74 - National Drugs Strategy [Head shops] [39804/09]. (05 Nov 2009)

Video

Darke, Shane and Banister, Samuel (2021) NDARC Webinar series. A dangerous misnomer: 'synthetic cannabis'. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre.

Dataset

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2024) Data from the UNODC early warning advisory on new psychoactive substances.

News

[RTE News] , Burnhill, Eleanor Arrival of synthetic drugs causing mental health concerns, says HSE. (05 Jan 2024)

[RTE News] , Burnhill, Eleanor Increase in synthetic drugs led to multiple overdoses last year, says HSE. (04 Jan 2024)

[RTE News] , Reynolds, Paul Drugs increasingly disguised as confectionery - Forensic Science Ireland. (15 Dec 2023)

[Extra.ie] , MacNamee, Garreth ‘Legal high’ drug inhaled through a vape puts four teens in hospital. (23 Nov 2023)

[Irish Examiner] , Dunphy, Liz Teenagers who fell ill while vaping at Cork school not an isolated incident. (14 Nov 2023)

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. [EMCDDA] EMCDDA technical expert meeting on hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related cannabinoids. (19 Dec 2022)

[EMCDDA] Two new synthetic cannabinoids to be placed under control across the EU. (14 May 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Burke, Ceimin The government just outlawed four popular 'designer' drugs. (22 Nov 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh A drug with 'zombie-like' effects is causing huge problems in Manchester. So what is it? (15 Apr 2017)

[drugs.ie] USI: Drug information campaign 2017. (20 Mar 2017)

[European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction] MDMB-CHMICA to be placed under control across the EU. (27 Feb 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh Crack cocaine and synthetic cannabinoids. Concern over new drug trends in Dublin. (27 Dec 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Record number of synthetic chemicals detected. (01 Jun 2013)

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Leading experts to review global developments in new drugs and ‘legal highs’. (07 Jun 2012)

[thejournal.ie] Taking new illicit drugs is like playing ‘a dangerous game of roulette’. (26 Apr 2012)

[Health Research Board] New report reveals the latest drug trends across Europe. (15 Nov 2011)

[Department of Health and Children] Minister of State with responsibility for Drugs Strategy, Róisín Shortall T.D., announces ban on more head shop products. (02 Nov 2011)

EMCDDA, EUROPOL. [EMCDDA] New drugs becoming available at ‘unprecedented pace’, says report. (11 May 2011)

[Department of Health and Children] Opening statement for meeting of Joint Committee on Health and Children in relation to recent legislation made to control certain substances under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1977. (01 Jun 2010)

[Department of Health and Children] Department of Health and Children statement in relation to legislation to be made under Misuse of Drugs Act 1977. (03 Mar 2010)

[European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction & Health Research Board] Latest drug trends across Europe. HRB compares Irish situation with European findings. (05 Nov 2009)

This list was generated on Fri Jul 19 04:32:07 2024 IST.