Home > Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related substances. Technical report.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Ujváry, István and Evans-Brown, Michael and Gallegos, Ana and Planchuelo, Gregorio and de Morais, Joanna and Christie, Rachel and Jorge, Rita and Sedefov, Roumen (2023) Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related substances. Technical report. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. DOI: 10.2810/852912.

PDF (Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related substances)

The markets for hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related semi-synthetic cannabinoids (SSC) are rapidly evolving areas with relatively limited information currently available. The European situation presented in Section 1 can only provide an overview and will necessarily be incomplete, it also serves to highlight the need for close monitoring. During 2023, a number of developments, such as reports of important law enforcement seizures and changes in legal status, have already taken place in some countries and, where possible, updates have been included.

Table of contents:

  • Section 1. HHC and the European drug market
    • 1.1 Purpose
    • 1.2 Background
      • 1.2.1 Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol
    • 1.3 HHC situation in Europe
    • 1.4 Other SSCs in Europe
    • 1.5. Areas for priority monitoring and research
  • Section 2. Technical review on HHC and related substances
    • 2.1 Summary
    • 2.2. A brief history of recent hemp regulation in the United States
    • 2.3. Chemical and physical properties, methods, and precursors used for manufacture or extraction of HHC
      • 2.3.1 Background
      • 2.3.2 Names and structure
      • 2.3.3 Physical properties
      • 2.3.4 Representative substances containing the hexahydrocannabinol core
      • 2.3.5 Methods and chemical precursors used for the manufacture or extraction
      • 2.3.6. Other chemical aspects
      • 2.3.7. Methods for identification and analysis
      • 2.3.8 Dosage regimens
    • 2.4. Legitimate use of HHC
      • 2.5. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of HHC
      • 2.5.1 Summary
      • 2.5.2 Pharmacodynamics
      • 2.5.3 Psychological and behavioural effects
      • 2.5.4 Safety pharmacology
      • 2.5.5 Pharmacokinetics
      • 2.5.6 Toxicology
      • 2.5.7 Abuse liability and dependence producing potential
    • 2.6 Related substances
      • 2.6.1 Homologues of HHC and other hydrogenated cannabinoid analogues of HHC
      • 2.6.2 Acetate esters of HHC, and representative tetrahydrocannabinol isomers
      • 2.6.3. Esters of related tetrahydrocannabinoids

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