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Scarth, Morgan and Havnes, Ingrid Amalia and Jørstad, Marie Lindvik and McVeigh, Jim and Van Hout, Marie Claire and Westlye, Lars T and Torgersen, Svenn and Bjørnebekk, Astrid (2022) Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 231 , p. 109275.

McVeigh, Jim and Hearne, Evelyn and Boardley, Ian and Bates, Geoff and Hope, Vivian and Ralphs, Rob and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2021) Generating evidence on the use of Image and performance enhancing drugs in the UK: results from a scoping review and expert consultation by the Anabolic Steroid UK network. Harm Reduction Journal , 18 , (1) , p. 107.

Macho, Juraj and Mudrak, Jiri and Slepicka, Pavel (2021) Enhancing the self: amateur bodybuilders making sense of experiences with appearance and performance-enhancing drugs. Frontiers in Psychology .

Bates, Geoff and McVeigh, Jim and Leavey, Conan (2021) Looking beyond the provision of injecting equipment to people who use anabolic androgenic steroids: harm reduction and behavior change goals for UK policy. Contemporary Drug Problems .

Brennan, Rebekah and Overbye, Marie and Van Hout, Marie Claire and McVeigh, James (2021) “A slippery slope”: a scoping review of the self-injection of unlicensed oils and fillers as body enhancement. Performance Enhancement & Health , 100185 .

Dores, Artemisa R and Carvalho, Irene P and Burkauskas, Julius and Simonato, Pierluigi and De Luca, Ilaria and Mooney, Roisin and Ioannidis, Konstantinos and Gómez-Martínez, M Ángeles and Demetrovics, Zsolt and Ábel, Krisztina Edina and Szabo, Attila and Fujiwara, Hironobu and Shibata, Mami and Ventola, Alejandra Rebeca Melero and Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria and Santos-Labrador, Ricardo M and Griskova-Bulanova, Inga and Pranckeviciene, Aiste and Kobayashi, Kei and Martinotti, Giovanni and Fineberg, Naomi A and Barbosa, Fernando and Corazza, Ornella (2021) Exercise and use of enhancement drugs at the time of the covid-19 pandemic: a multicultural study on coping strategies during self-isolation and related risks. Frontiers in Psychiatry , 12 , p. 648501.

Moyle, Leah and Dymock, Alex and Aldridge, Alexandra and Mechen, Ben (2020) Pharmacosex: reimagining sex, drugs and enhancement. The International Journal of Drug Policy , 86 , p. 102943.

Bates, Geoff and Van Hout, Marie Claire and Teck, Joseph Tay Wee and McVeigh, Jim (2019) Treatments for people who use anabolic androgenic steroids: a scoping review. Harm Reduction Journal , 16 , (75) .

Havnes, Ingrid Amalia and Jørstad, Marie Lindvik and Wisløff, Christine (2019) Anabolic-androgenic steroid users receiving health-related information; health problems, motivations to quit and treatment desires. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 14 , (1) , p. 20.

Moloney, Stephen (2019) In the gay community, the issue of men using performance and image enhancing drugs is becoming more prevalent. GCN , 354 , pp. 21-22.

Brennan, Rebekah and Wells, John and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2018) "Blood letting"-Self-phlebotomy in injecting anabolic-androgenic steroids within performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) culture. International Journal of Drug Policy , 55 , pp. 47-50.

Brennan, Rebekah and Wells, John S G and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2017) The injecting use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPED) in the general population: a systematic review. Health and Social Care in the Community , 25 , (5) , pp. 1459-1531.

McVeigh, Jim and Germain, Jennifer and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2017) 2,4-Dinitrophenol, the inferno drug: a netnographic study of user experiences in the quest for leanness. Journal of Substance Use , 22 , (2) , pp. 131-138.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Hearne, Evelyn (2016) Netnography of female use of the synthetic growth hormone CJC-1295: pulses and potions. Substance Use & Misuse , 51 , (1) , pp. 73-84.

Sagoe, Dominic and McVeigh, Jim and Bjørnebekk, Astrid and Essilfie, Marie-Stella and Schou Andreassen, Cecilie and Pallesen, Ståle (2015) Polypharmacy among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a descriptive metasynthesis. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 10 , (12) .

Duffy, RM and Kelly, BD (2015) Steroids, psychosis and poly-substance abuse. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 32 , (2) , 227 -230.

(2013) Heuristics of human enhancement risk: a little chemical help? International Journal of Health Promotion and Education , 51 , (4) , pp. 212-227.

Ziraldo, Laura and O'Connor, MB and Blake, Simon B and Phelan, Mark J (2011) Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use. Substance Abuse , 32 , pp. 170-173.

Monaghan, Lee F (2009) Commentary on Kanayama et al. (2009): the normalization of steroid use. Addiction , 104 , (12) , pp. 1979-80.


An Garda Siochana. (2020) An Garda Síochána annual report 2019. Dublin: An Garda Siochana.

Matheson, Catriona and Bon, Lesley and Bowman, Louise and MacLeod, Katy and Hannah, Adrienne and Knox, Anthony (2020) Understanding the sexual health and blood borne virus risk behaviours of defined 'at risk' groups to inform a service training programme. Glasgow: Scottish Drugs Forum.

Foster, Cyrss and Scarlett, Mary and Stewart, Bill (2020) Young persons’ behaviour and attitudes survey 2019: substance use - (smoking, alcohol & drugs). Belfast: Department of Health.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Public Health Wales. (2020) Facilitators and barriers to health care access amongst people using image and performance enhancing drugs in Wales. Cardiff: Public Health Wales.

Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice. (2020) Drugs of abuse: a DEA resource guide. Washington DC: Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice.

Health Products Regulatory Authority. (2018) Health Products Regulatory Authority annual report 2017. Dublin: HPRA.

Health Protection Surveillance Centre. (2018) Drug-related bloodborne viruses in Ireland. Dublin: Health Protection Surveillance Centre.

Health Products Regulatory Authority. (2017) Health Products Regulatory Authority annual report 2016. Dublin: HPRA.

Lifeline Project. (2016) Image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): literature review. London: Lifeline Project Ltd.

McVeigh, Jim and Bates, Geoff and Chandler, Martin (2015) Steroids and image enhancing drugs. 2014 survey results. Liverpool: Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Hopkins University.

Jennings, Ciaran J and Patten, Emer and Kennedy, Mark and Kelly, Chris (2014) Examining the profile and perspectives of individuals attending harm reduction services who are users of performance and image enhancing drugs. Dublin: Merchants Quay Ireland.

Jennings, Ciaran J (2013) Re-establishing contact: A profile of clients attending the health promotion unit - needle exchange at Merchants Quay Ireland. Dublin: Merchants Quay Ireland.

O'Connell, Angela (2012) How we see it. Report of a survey on young people's body image. Dublin: Department of Children and Youth Affairs.

Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. (2011) A summary of the health harms of drugs. London: Department of Health & National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. (2010) Consideration of the anabolic steroids. London: Home Office.

O'Colmain, Aidan (2010) Drugs and doping in sport - guidelines for general practitioners. Dublin: Irish College of General Practitioners and Irish Sports Council.


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2021) Spotlight on… Performance- and image-enhancing drugs. URL: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/spotlights/performanc...

Health Service Executive. (2021) Anabolic steroid misuse. URL: https://www2.hse.ie/conditions/anabolic-steroid-mi...


Ahuja, Dipali and Ryan, Laurie and Browne, Emer (2019) Everything you need to know about steroids. RTE Brainstorm.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018) DrugFacts: Anabolic steroids. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Clondalkin Drug and Alcohol Task Force, Clondalkin Traveller Development Group. (2017) CDATF Juice magazine. What are steroids? Dublin: Clondalkin Drug and Alcohol Task Force.

Darcy, Clay (2017) Steroid and supplement factsheet. Dublin: Bray Drugs Awareness Forum.

Irish Sports Council. (2008) Irish Sports Council factsheets: Anabolic steroids, beta-blockers, hormones. Dublin: Irish Sports Council.

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 610 - Drug treatment programmes [11456/15] [Steroids]. (24 Mar 2015)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 29 - Anti-doping measures [Greyhounds] [25199/07]. (25 Oct 2007)


National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. (2017) Quick guide to drugs & alcohol. New South Wales: Drug Info. State Library of NSW .

Levinthal, Charles F (2011) Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon .

Robson, Philip (2009) Forbidden drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Levinthal, Charles F (2008) Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston ; London: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon .

Kuhn, Cynthia and Swartzwelder, Scott and Wilson, Wilkie (2008) Buzzed: the straight facts about the most used and abused drugs from alcohol to ecstasy. New York: W.W. Norton .

Mosher, Clayton James and Akins, Scott (2007) Drugs and drug policy : the control of consciousness alteration. Thousand Oaks Ca.: Sage .

Dimeo, Paul, ed. (2006) Drugs, alcohol and sport. London: Routledge .

Wills, Simon (2005) Drugs of abuse. London: Pharmaceutical Press .

Goldberg, Raymond, ed. (2004) Taking sides: clashing views on controversial issues in drugs and society. Guilford: McGraw-Hill .

Karch, Steven B (2002) Karch's pathology of drug abuse. Boca Raton Fl.: CRC Press .

Seivewright, Nicholas (2000) Community treatment of drug misuse: more than methadone. London: Cambridge University Press .

Jellinek Prevention. van der Meer, Ron (2000) Drug aware: every person's guide to understanding drugs. Sydney: Van der Meer Publishing .

South, Nigel, ed. (1999) Drugs cultures, controls & everyday life. London: Sage .

Herscovitch, Arthur G (1999) Everything you need to know about drug abuse. Need to know library New York: Rosen .

Bellenir, Karen, ed. (1996) Substance abuse sourcebook. Basic health-related information about the abuse of legal and illegal substance such as alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin; and including facts about substance abuse prevention strategies, intervention methods, treatment and recovery programs, and a section addressing the special problems related to substance abuse during pregnancy. Health Reference Series, v. 14 Detroit: Omingraphics .

Friedman, Lawrence S and Fleming, Nicholas F and Roberts, David H and Hyman, Steven E, eds. (1996) Sourcebook of substance abuse and addiction. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins .


(2014) Steroid users accessing needle exchange services. Anabolic steroids & associated drugs: evidence from the United Kingdom. drugs.ie.

Teaching Resource

Brennan, Rebekah (2014) ‘IDUHED’: An ethno pharmacological study of the injecting use of human enhancement drugs. Dublin: Irish Research Bouncil.


[Independent.ie] , Schiller, Robin Steroid use continues to grow - despite closure of gyms and Covid lockdown. (05 Oct 2020)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Cionnaith, Fiachra Steroid use among young prompts calls for new public awareness campaign. (06 Sep 2019)

[Independent.ie] Teenagers 'can shop around' to find cheap steroids. (15 Aug 2019)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Cionnaith, Fiachra Fears of hidden steroid abuse by males. (12 Aug 2019)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] HPRA detain 619,213 dosage units of illegal medicines in 2018. (05 Mar 2019)

[Irish Times] , O'Halloran, Marie Calls for increased Garda enforcement to stop illegal steroid importation. (30 Nov 2018)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] 90,000 Illegal medicines worth €376,000 detained in Ireland by the HPRA during Operation Pangea. (23 Oct 2018)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] Dangers of anabolic steroids highlighted by new HPRA ‘Zero Gains’ campaign. (08 Oct 2018)

[Irish Times] , Thompson, Sylvia Being alert to the risks of falsified and substandard medicines. (27 Sep 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh 'Life is so much more chaotic': a day on addiction outreach in Limerick city. (22 Sep 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh Steep increase in Limerick steroid-users seeking needle exchange. (09 Sep 2018)

[The Medical Independent] , Cahill, Niamh HPRA to launch information campaign on illegal anabolic steroids. (23 Aug 2018)

[Independent.ie] , Quinlin, Ailin The rise of steroid use: Irish men are feeling pressure to get a ripped Love Island body. (24 Jul 2018)

[Independent.ie] , Lynott, Laura Drug services are 'patchy' and 'need to cater for teens'. (07 Jul 2018)

[Independent.ie] , Henry, Karl Social media generation needs to learn the risks far outweigh benefits of turning to steroids. (07 Jul 2018)

[Irish Times] , Houston, Muiris Anabolic steroids and adolescents’ culture of invulnerability. (06 Jul 2018)

[Irish Times] , O'Riordan, Ian Ireland’s anabolic steroids boom: a tell-tale sign of recovery. (05 May 2018)

[Irish Times] , Wall, Martin Volume of anabolic steriods seized in Ireland alarms pharmacists. (28 Apr 2018)

[rte.ie] , Bowers, Fergal 40% jump in illegal prescription drugs seized. (17 Apr 2018)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] Close to one million units of illegal medicines detained by the HPRA in 2017. (17 Apr 2018)

[thejournal.ie] , Fitzgerald, Cormac Warning that dietary supplement 'not fit for human consumption' due to presence of illegal steroids. (08 Mar 2018)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Mark Steroid abuse rises sharply amongst middle-aged men. (01 Jan 2018)

[Irish Examiner] , Hoare, Padraig Warning as number of steroids seized surges 300%. (18 Dec 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , Hoare, Padraig Why is the demand for steroids rising among young people? (18 Dec 2017)

[Independent.ie] Teenagers now using illegal steroids in bid to 'bulk up. (10 Oct 2017)

[Medical Independent] , Reilly, Catherine Seized oncology medications were aimed at bodybuilders. (05 Oct 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Minister calls on gyms to play a role as 72,000 fake steroids seized. (26 Sep 2017)

[Irish Examiner Breaking News] We want his death to be a lesson to others on the dangers of anabolic steroids: Family’s appeal. (25 Apr 2017)

[Health Products Regulatory Authority] HPRA detains 673,906 dosage units of illegal medicines in 2016. (13 Mar 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Power, Marcus Steroids: 'I thought that the only way I could beat my addiction was to end my life'. (20 Nov 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , Kelleher, Lynne Rising numbers hospitalised for taking anabolic steroids. (20 Sep 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , Shanahan, Catherine Over half counterfeit drugs seized were anabolic steroids. (10 Jun 2016)

[Independent.ie] , McGrath, Meadhbh Competitive bodybuilding may be causing 'extraordinary damage' to Irish teenagers - expert. (02 Jun 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , Ring, Evelyn Alert over abuse of ‘boosters’ in gyms. (28 Apr 2016)

[Irish Times] , Cumiskey, Gavin Steroid abuse prevalent in Irish society – Irish Sports Council. (26 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Gardaí bid to tackle illicit sale of steroids. (19 Jun 2015)

[thejournal.ie] , Hosford, Paul Performance-enhancing drugs don’t actually make you better at sport. (11 May 2015)

[thejournal.ie] More and more men are receiving treatment for steroid abuse. (20 Nov 2014)

[BBC News Northern Ireland] , Fitzpatrick, Michael Northern Ireland needle exchange scheme numbers rise 50% in four years. (16 Apr 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Gardaí and customs net €45m drugs in 40 operations. (22 Jul 2013)

[Irish Examiner Breaking News] Junior cup kids 'have necks on them like adults' due to supplements, says sports doctor. (13 Feb 2013)

[Irish Medical Times] , Mousseau, Marie Catherine Anti-doping: 2011 guide for prescribers. (11 Jan 2011)

This list was generated on Tue Jan 25 04:08:41 2022 GMT.