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Outcomes framework

Shared measurement involves using common tools to track outcomes across similar organisations and settings. This project aimed to develop a shared outcomes framework and a set of common measures for Drug and Alcohol Taskforces to begin tracking the impact of their work in a consistent way. It was designed to enable better understanding of what works to promote recovery from problem substance use, enable learning across services, taskforces and regions and allow evidence of what interventions are effective at a local context to be fed into national strategy.

The HRB National Drugs Library worked with a number of task forces to identify common outcomes in personal recovery and map the services they provide to these outcomes.  Following agreement on the framework, we identified a number of instruments that can be used to measure the shared outcomes.  

The instruments were chosen based on the kinds of population they had been used with previously and on their validity, consistency and reliability.  These attributes were measured using the Cronbach’s Alpha measure of internal consistency of psychometric instruments.  All of these measures are brief and are freely available. There are five groups of intermediate outcome measures:. 
•    Attitudes and feelings
•    Employment and skills
•    Relationships
•    Personal circumstances and needs
•    Drug use behaviour
Attitudes and feelings: this includes many aspects of emotional health and how we feel about ourselves as well as attitudes around drug and alcohol misuse.
•   Schwarzer, R and Jerusalem, M (1995) General self-efficacy scale (GSE) [self-efficacy].
•   Phillips, J and Springer, F (1992) Self-control and self-efficacy - individual protective factors [self-efficacy].
•   Martin, Garth W (1991) Drug avoidance self-efficacy scale (DASES) [self-efficacy].
•   Stein, LAR and Katz, B et al (2006) Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire-Adolescent, Brief (AEQ-AB) [attitudes towards drug and alcohol use].
•   Torrealday, O et al (1991) Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief (MEEQ-B) [attitudes towards drug and alcohol use].
•   Keyson, M and Janson, L Drinking related internal-external locus of control scale [attitudes towards drug and alcohol use]. 
•   Leading Across London. (2014) Emotional intelligence questionnaire London: NHS England. [emotional intelligence]. 
•   Carver, CS (1997) COPE [self-determination].
•   Decision making skills [self-determination].
•   Brown, KW and Ryan, RM (2003) Mindfulness questionnaire [thinking differently].
•   Carver, CS (1997) COPE: positive reframing subscale [[thinking differently].
•   Rosenberg, Morris (1965) Self-esteem (Rosberg) [self esteem].
Employment and skills: this includes both the softer skills needed to succeed in the workplace - things like good communication, interpersonal and self-management skills. It also includes hard outcomes like gaining employment or a qualification.
•    Scheier, MF and Wrosch, C et al (2006) Life engagement test [sense of purpose].
•    Phillips, J and Springer, F (1992) Individual Protective Factors Index, self-control scale [self-management skills].
•    Wiemann, JM (1977) Communicative competence scale [communication skills & interpersonal skills].
Relationships: this includes both relationships with family and the wider community, peer relationships (positive and negative) and parenting skills.
•   Leary, MR et al (2012) Need to Belong Scale. [social networks / peer relationships]. Unpublished.
•   Normative influences (II): approval. [social networks / peer relationships].
•   Normative influences [social networks / peer relationships].
•   Perception of social support/order [social networks / peer relationships].
•   Bonding to parents and family. [family relationships].
•   Parental regulation. [parenting].
•   Parental risk factors. [parenting].
•   Perception of parental conflict. [parenting].
•   Fischer, JL et al (1991) The Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SF CDS) [co-dependency].
Personal circumstances and needs: sometimes referred to by practitioners as ‘barriers’ or ‘presenting needs’, these include physical and mental health issues, access to appropriate housing and financial advice as well as criminal activity.
•    Lown, JM (2011) The Financial Self-Efficacy Scale (FSES). [debt and finance].
•    Jacob, Katy (2002) Financial behavior. [debt and finance].
•    Kroenke, K et al (2001) Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). [mental health].
•    Oberg, D et al (1998) Addiction Severity Index – crime [criminal activity; drug use behaviour - substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Euroqol. (1990) Health Questionnaire (EQ-5D). [physical health].
•    Brodman, K et al (1949) Health Questionnaire. [physical health].
Drug use behaviour: this is both level of drug use as well as patterns of use. It can relate to reducing use among drug and alcohol users as well as preventing later use through targeted prevention.
•    Christo, George (1998) Christo Inventory for Substance-misuse Services [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Marsden, John et al (1998) Maudsley Addiction Profile. [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Turner, T (1998) Addiction Severity Index – crime. [criminal activity; drug use behaviour - substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Miller, William R. and Tonigan, JS (1996) SOCRATES for females’ significant other [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Miller, William R. and Tonigan, JS (1996) SOCRATES for males’ significant other [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Miller, William R. and Tonigan, JS (1996) Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale - v. 8 -- Alcohol [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    Litman, Gloria K et al (1983) Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI) [substance use / maintenance / relapse].
•    James, Delyth H and French, David P (2008) Self-medicating scale [self-medication].
•    Russinova, Zlatka et al (2006) Recovery-Promoting Relationships Scale [enabling factors].
•    Fry, C et al (1998) Blood borne virus transmission risk [safer use].
•    Oberg, D et al (1997) The Texas Christian University HIV/AIDS Risk Assessment [safer use].
•    Center for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (1982) Injecting Risk Questionnaire (IRQ) [safer use].
•   Problem behaviour (youth) [prevention].

This page was last updated in 2024. (Note: the results found through the searches above are updated as new items are added to the collection.]

recovery, outcomes, measure, evaluate, outcome tools, drug use