Home > Trends in alcohol-related deaths by sex in the US, 1999-2020.

Karaye, Ibraheem M and Maleki, Nasim and Hassan, Nawaal and Yunusa, Ismaeel (2023) Trends in alcohol-related deaths by sex in the US, 1999-2020. JAMA Network Open, 6, (7), e2326346. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.26346.

External website: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/f...

IMPORTANCE: Alcohol consumption rates have been increasing among women in the US, which may affect mortality rates and sex gaps. Therefore, conducting a comprehensive assessment of sex differences in alcohol-related deaths is essential to inform targeted interventions and policies aimed at reducing the burden of alcohol-related harm among the population.

OBJECTIVE: To examine sex differences in the burden and trends of alcohol-related mortality in the US from 1999 to 2020.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional time series study used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research data on alcohol-related deaths from 1999 to 2020. Alcohol-related deaths were identified from the underlying cause of death files using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, codes, including alcohol-related poisoning, liver disease, gastritis, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, polyneuropathy, and pseudo-Cushing syndrome, among others.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) were analyzed by sex and substratified by race and ethnicity, age, and census region. Rate ratios and 95% CIs calculated by Taylor series were used to assess sex differences in mortality burden. Joinpoint regression was used to assess temporal trends.

RESULTS: A total of 605 948 alcohol-attributed deaths were identified in the US from 1999 through 2020. The mortality burden was higher among male individuals than female individuals, with male individuals being 2.88 times more likely to die compared with female individuals. However, temporal trends showed an increase in alcohol-related deaths for both male and female individuals in recent years, with higher rates of increase among female individuals relative to male individuals. The AAMR increased by 12.5% per year among male individuals from 2018 to 2020 but increased by 14.7% per year among female individuals during the same period. Trend differences were observed across subtypes of age, race and ethnicity, cause, and region.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study of alcohol-related mortality in the US suggests there has been a significantly higher rate of increase in deaths among female individuals in recent years. These findings underscore the need for further research to understand the specific factors associated with this trend. The development of targeted interventions and evidence-based treatments for alcohol use among female individuals becomes imperative in effectively addressing the increasing rates of alcohol-related deaths.

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