Home > The extent of and factors associated with self-reported overdose and self-reported receipt of naloxone among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

O'Halloran, Charlotte and Cullen, Katelyn and Njoroge, Jaquelyn and Jessop, Lucy and Smith, Josie and Hope, Vivian and Ncube, Fortune (2017) The extent of and factors associated with self-reported overdose and self-reported receipt of naloxone among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. International Journal on Drug Policy , 46 , pp. 34-40.

BACKGROUND: Overdose is a major cause of death among PWID, and for opioid overdoses naloxone administration can reduce harm. However, globally there is limited national level data on the extent of non-fatal overdose and naloxone uptake. The first national level data on the extent of self-reported overdose and self-reported receipt of naloxone among UK PWID, providing a baseline to monitor the impact of the recent policy change regarding naloxone availability, is presented.

METHODS: Data on self-reported overdose and receipt of naloxone during the preceding year for 2013-2014 from a national survey of PWID was analysed. Participants who reported injecting during the preceding year were included.

RESULTS: Participants (3850) were predominantly male (75%); mean age was 36 years. The most commonly injected drugs were: heroin (91%), crack (45%) and amphetamine (29%). 15% (591) reported overdosing during the preceding year. There were no differences in the proportion reporting overdose by age or gender, but overdose was more common among those who: injected multiple drugs; recently ceased addiction treatment; injected with used needles/syringes; ever had transactional sex; had used a sexual health clinic or emergency department and lived in Wales or Northern Ireland. Among those reporting an overdose during the preceding year, a third reported two to four overdoses and 7.5% five or more overdoses; half reported receiving naloxone. Those reporting naloxone receipt in the preceding year were more likely to: live in Wales or Northern Ireland; ever received used needles/syringes; ever been imprisoned; and less likely to have injected two drug types.

CONCLUSION: These data provide a baseline for monitoring the impact of the 2015 UK policy change to improve take-home naloxone access. Interventions tackling overdose should promote naloxone awareness and access, and target those who; are poly-drug injectors, have ceased treatment, share needles/syringes and whose drug use links to sexual activity.

Corrigendum to “The extent of and factors associated with self-reported overdose and self-reported receipt of naloxone among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland” [Int. J. Drug Policy 46 (2017) 34–40] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395918301105?via%3Dihub

Item Type:Article
Date:3 June 2017
Page Range:pp. 34-40
Publisher:Elsevier
Volume:46
EndNote:View
Related URLs:
Subjects:B Substances > Opioids (opiates) > Opioid product > Naloxone
F Concepts in psychology > Specific attitude and behaviour > risk-taking behaviour
G Health and disease > Substance use disorder > Drug use > Drug intoxication > Poisoning (overdose)
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Risk and protective factors > Risk factors
T Demographic characteristics > Intravenous / injecting drug user
VA Geographic area > Europe > United Kingdom > Wales
VA Geographic area > Europe > United Kingdom > England
VA Geographic area > Europe > Northern Ireland

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