Home > Recent changes in Europe’s MDMA/ecstasy market. EMCDDA rapid communication.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2016) Recent changes in Europe’s MDMA/ecstasy market. EMCDDA rapid communication. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

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This report explores the recent resurgence in use of MDMA in Europe and increased availability of high-strength MDMA tablets, crystals and powders. It notes that the picture is not uniform across European countries, and while overall the region’s MDMA market is now in a period of consolidation, there are some temporal ripple effects as latecomer countries catch up.

Table of contents

  • Study rationale and methods
  • A short history of MDMA/ecstasy
  • A range of MDMA products
  • MDMA markets — production and supply
  • MDMA use and cultural context
  • MDMA harms and deaths
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Date:May 2016
Pages:20 p.
Publisher:Publications Office of the European Union
Corporate Creators:European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Place of Publication:Luxembourg
ISBN:978-92-9168-911-8
EndNote:View
Accession Number:HRB 5380 (Available), HRB 5382 (Available)
Related URLs:
Subjects:B Substances > CNS stimulants > MDMA
B Substances > CNS stimulants > MDMA > Ecstasy
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Risk and protective factors
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Substance use prevention > Substance use harm reduction
MM-MO Crime and law > Substance related offence > Drug offence > Illegal distribution of drugs (drug market / dealing)
VA Geographic area > Europe

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