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OECD. (2012) Health at a glance: Europe 2012. Paris: OECD Publishing.

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Introduction 12
Chapter 1. Health status 15
1.1. Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth
1.2. Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at age 65
1.3. Mortality from all causes
1.4. Mortality from heart disease and stroke
1.5. Mortality from cancer
1.6. Mortality from transport accidents
1.7. Suicide
1.8. Infant mortality
1.9. Infant health: Low birth weight
1.10. Self-reported health and disability
1.11. Incidence of selected communicable diseases
1.12. HIV/AIDS
1.13. Cancer incidence
1.14. Diabetes prevalence and incidence
1.15. Dementia prevalence
1.16. Asthma and COPD prevalence

Chapter 2. Determinants of health 49
2.1. Smoking and alcohol consumption among children
2.2. Overweight and obesity among children
2.3. Fruit and vegetable consumption among children
2.4. Physical activity among children
2.5. Smoking among adults
2.6. Alcohol consumption among adults
2.7. Overweight and obesity among adults
2.8. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults

Chapter 3. Health care resources and activities 67
3.1. Medical doctors
3.2. Consultations with doctors
3.3. Nurses
3.4. Medical technologies: CT scanners and MRI units
3.5. Hospital beds
3.6. Hospital discharges
3.7. Average length of stay in hospitals
3.8. Cardiac procedures (coronary angioplasty)
3.9. Cataract surgeries
3.10. Hip and knee replacement
3.11. Pharmaceutical consumption
3.12. Unmet health care needs

Chapter 4. Quality of care 93
Care for chronic conditions
4.1. Avoidable admissions: Respiratory diseases
4.2. Avoidable admissions: Uncontrolled diabetes
Acute care
4.3. In-hospital mortality following acute myocardial infarction
4.4. In-hospital mortality following stroke
Patient safety
4.5. Procedural or postoperative complications
4.6. Obstetric trauma
Cancer care
4.7. Screening, survival and mortality for cervical cancer
4.8. Screening, survival and mortality for breast cancer
4.9. Screening, survival and mortality for colorectal cancer
Care for communicable diseases
4.10. Childhood vaccination programmes
4.11. Influenza vaccination for older people

Chapter 5. Health expenditure and financing 117
5.1. Coverage for health care
5.2. Health expenditure per capita
5.3. Health expenditure in relation to GDP
5.4. Health expenditure by function.
5.5. Pharmaceutical expenditure
5.6. Financing of health care
5.7. Trade in health services

Bibliography 133
Annex A. Additional information on demographic and economic context 143

Most European countries have reduced tobacco consumption via public awareness campaigns, advertising bans and increased taxation. The percentage of adults who smoke daily is below 15% in Sweden and Iceland, from over 30% in 1980. At the other end of the scale, over 30% of adults in Greece smoke daily. Smoking rates continue to be high in Bulgaria, Ireland and Latvia (Figure 2.5.1).

Alcohol consumption has also fallen in many European countries. Curbs on advertising, sales restrictions and taxation have all proven to be effective measures. Traditional wine-producing countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, have seen consumption per capita fall substantially since 1980. Alcohol consumption per adult rose significantly in a number of countries, including Cyprus, Finland and Ireland (Figure 2.6.1).

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