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Millar, Sean (2020) Needle exchange provision during Covid-19 pandemic. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 75, Autumn 2020 , pp. 13-14.

Millar, Sean (2020) Senior management perspectives on needle exchange provision in Irish prisons. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 75, Autumn 2020 , p. 20.

Bornstein, K J and Coye, A E and St Onge, J E and Li, H and Muller, A and Bartholomew, T S and Tookes, H E (2020) Hospital admissions among people who inject opioids following syringe services program implementation. Harm Reduction Journal , 17 , (30) , p. 30.

Bobashev, Georgiy and Mars, Sarah and Murphy, Nicholas and Dreisbach, Clinton and Zule, William and Ciccarone, Daniel (2019) Heroin type, injecting behavior, and HIV transmission. a simulation model of HIV incidence and prevalence. PLoS ONE , 14 , (12) , e0215042.

O'Keefe, Daniel and Bluthenthal, Ricky N and Kral, Alex H and Aitken, Campbell K and McCormack, Angus and Dietze, Paul M (2019) Measures of harm reduction service provision for people who inject drugs. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 97 , (9) , pp. 605-611.

Bozinoff, Nikki and Luo, Lerly and Dong, Huiru and Krüsi, Andrea and DeBeck, Kora (2019) Street-involved youth engaged in sex work at increased risk of syringe sharing. AIDS Care , 31 , (1) , pp. 69-76.

Crowley, Desmond and Lambert, John S and Betts-Symonds, Graham and Cullen, Walter and Keevans, Mary and Kelly, Enda and Laird, Eamon and McHugh, Tina and McKiernan, Susan and Miggin, Sarah Jayne and Murphy, Carol and Murtagh, Ross and O'Reilly, Deirdre and Tobin, Ciara and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2019) The seroprevalence of untreated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in male Irish prisoners: a cross-sectional study, 2017. Euro Surveillance , 24 , (14) .

Burch, Jane and Tort, Sera (2018) Clinical question: What are the effects of opioid substitution therapy and needle syringe programs for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs? Cochrane Clinical Answers .

Millar, Sean (2018) Street-based injecting in Dublin city centre. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 64, Winter 2018 , p. 9.

Platt, Lucy and Sweeney, Sedona and Ward, Zoe and Guinness, Lorna and Hickman, Matthew and Hope, Vivian and Hutchinson, Sharon and Maher, Lisa and Iversen, Jenny and Craine, Noel and Taylor, Avril and Munro, Alison and Parry, John V and Smith, Josie and Vickerman, Peter (2017) Assessing the impact and cost-effectiveness of needle/syringe provision and opiate substitution therapy on hepatitis C transmission among people who inject drugs in the United Kingdom: analysis of pooled datasets and economic modeling. Public Health Research , 5 , (5) .

Platt, Lucy and Minozzi, Silvia and Reed, Jennifer and Vickerman, Peter and Hagan, Holly and French, Clare and Jordan, Ashly and Degenhardt, Louisa and Hope, Vivian and Hutchinson, Sharon and Maher, Lisa and Palmateer, Norah and Taylor, Avril and Bruneau, Julie and Hickman, Matthew (2017) Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 9 , CD012021.

Millar, Sean (2017) Evaluation of the pilot stage of the Pharmacy Needle Exchange Programme in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 62, Summer 2017 , pp. 31-33.

Fernandes, Ricardo M and Cary, Maria and Duarte, Gonçalo and Jesus, Gonçalo and Alarcão, Joana and Torre, Carla and Costa, Suzete and Costa, João and Carneiro, António Vaz (2017) Effectiveness of needle and syringe programmes in people who inject drugs - An overview of systematic reviews. BMC Public Health , 17 , (1) , p. 309.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2016) Clients of Danish drug consumption room reduce public injecting. Drug and Alcohol Findings Research Analysis , (13 December 2016) .

Dolan, Kate and Wirtz, Andrea L and Moazen, Babak and Ndeff o-mbah, Martial and Galvani, Alison and Kinner, Stuart A and Courtney, Ryan and McKee, Martin and Amon, Joseph J and Maher, Lisa and Hellard, Margaret and Beyrer, Chris and Altice, Frederick (2016) Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees. The Lancet , 388 , (10049) .

Curtin, Margaret (2015) Needle exchange provision in Ireland in 2012. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 55, Autumn 2015 , pp. 22-24.

Duplessy, Catherine and Reynaud, Emmanuel G (2014) Long-term survey of a syringe-dispensing machine needle exchange program: answering public concerns. Harm Reduction Journal , 11 , p. 16.

(2013) Heuristics of human enhancement risk: a little chemical help? International Journal of Health Promotion and Education , 51 , (4) , pp. 212-227.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin [Needle exchange]. Effectiveness Bank Bulletin , 30 Oct .

Keane, Martin (2012) Implementing needle exchange programmes: the evidence base. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 41, Spring 2012 , pp. 17-18.

Hope, VD and Palmateer, M and Wiessing, Lucas and Maronqiu, A and White, J and Ncube, F and Goldberg, D (2012) A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation. American Journal of Public Health , 102 , (1) , pp. 122-125.

Keane, Martin (2010) The Irish Needle Exchange Forum conference. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 33, Spring 2010 , p. 27.

Robinson, Janet and Gibney, Sarah and Keane, Martin and Long, Jean (2008) Profile of needle exchange services in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 28, Winter 2008 , pp. 16-17.

O'Shea, Mary (2007) Introducing safer injecting facilities (SIFs) in the Republic of Ireland: 'Chipping away' at policy change. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 14 , (1) , pp. 75-88.

Smyth, Bobby P and Roche, A (2007) Recipient syringe sharing and its relationship to social proximity, perception of risk and preparedness to share. Addictive Behaviors , 32 , (9) , pp. 1943-1948.

Long, Jean (2005) Prison needle exchange. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 14, Summer 2005 , p. 11.

McElrath, Karen (2005) Booting and flushing: needle rituals and risk for bloodborne viruses. Journal of Substance Use , 11 , (3) , 177¨C189.

Long, Jean and Allwright, Shane and Begley, C. (2004) Prisoners' views of injecting drug use and harm reduction in Irish prisons. International Journal of Drug Policy , 15 , (2) , pp. 139-149.

Cox, Gemma and Cassin, Sean and Lawless, Marie and Geoghegan, Tony (2000) Syringe exchanges: a public health response to problem drug use. Irish Medical Journal , 93 , (5) , pp. 143-146.

Smyth, Bobby P and Keenan, Eamon and Dorman, Arthur and O'Connor, John J (1994) Gender differences in needle sharing behaviour patterns. Addiction , 89 , (1) , pp. 96-97.

Johnson, Z and O'Connor, M and Pomeroy, L and Johnson, H and Barry, Joseph and Scully, M and Fitzpatrick, E (1994) Prevalence of HIV and associated risk behaviour in attendees at a Dublin needle exchange. Addiction , 89 , (5) , pp. 603-607.

O'Sullivan, Michael and Beattie, Thomas and Keane, CT (1984) A review of drug addict abscesses. Irish Medical Journal , 77 , (3) , 68 70.


[] , O'Flynn, Mark Call for outreach programmes for people with hepatitis C. (06 Apr 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Needle exchange gets thumbs up from users. (05 Mar 2017)

[Irish Medical Times] , Culliton, Gary Target set for first injecting facility. (14 Sep 2016)

[] , Courtney, Lorraine Plans for heroin injection centres a step in right direction. (06 Nov 2015)

[] Here’s what the drugs minister means by ‘Supervised Injection Centres’. (03 Nov 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Doherty, Ian 'Safe rooms' for drug addicts a shot in the arm for city centre. (29 Jul 2015)

[Belfastlive] , Grant, Rob One in six Northern Irish drug users "share needles", survey claims. (22 Jul 2015)

[] Safe disposal of drug related litter in County Westmeath. (20 Jul 2015)

[] , Ryan, Nicky Poll: Should injection centres for drug addicts be opened in Ireland? (11 Jul 2015)

[] , Healy, Paul and Fegan, Joyce 'I have to lock our church doors every day to stop drug addicts shooting up' - priest. (20 Feb 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Legal move to provide heroin use sites. (17 Dec 2014)

[Irish Independent] , Dowling, Enda Elton's cash finally funding 130 needle exchange programmes. (13 Aug 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Stack, Sarah 75% of Dublin heroin addicts also hooked on other drugs, study finds. (28 May 2013)

[Irish Medical Times] Surge expected in liver cirrhosis cases. (19 Apr 2012)

[Ana Liffey Drug Project] Dublin Regional Homeless Executive supports plans to pilot a Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. (21 Feb 2012)

[Ana Liffey Drug Project] Pharmacy Needle Exchange Programme (Ireland) September 2011. (21 Sep 2011)


HSE National Social Inclusion Office. (2020) Needle exchange provision in COVID-19 pandemic. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Verma, Suman and Phipps, Emily and Cunniffe, Dee and Paranthaman, Karthik (2019) HCV testing in NSP (needle and syringe provision) community pharmacies pilot (phase 2). Report and findings. London Joint Working Group on Substance Use and Hepatitis C.

Keane, Marcus and Korovich, M and Duffin, Tony and Russell, D (2017) At the dark end of the street. A report on street based injecting in Dublin city centre. Dublin: Ana Liffey Drug Project.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Perspectives on drugs: Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, International Network of People who Use Drugs, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Population Fund, World Health Organization, United States Agency for International Development. (2017) Implementing comprehensive HIV and HCV programmes with people who inject drugs: practical guidance for collaborative interventions. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2016) Perspectives on drugs: Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Health Service Executive. (2016) Health service performance report January/February 2016. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

Health Service Executive. (2016) Health service performance report December 2015. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

World Health Organization. (2015) HIV and young people who inject drugs. Technical brief. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Ana Liffey Drug Project. (2015) Ana Liffey drug project position paper on the provision of a medically supervised injecting centre in Dublin. Dublin: Ana Liffey Drug Project.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2014) Needle and syringe programmes. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

Positive Now and the All-Ireland Network of People Living with HIV. O'Donnell, Aislinn (2014) HIV: Our responsibilities. Dublin: Positive Now and the All-Ireland Network of People Living with HIV.

Australian National Council on Drugs. (2013) ANCD position paper: Needle and syringe programs. Australian National Council on Drugs.

Jennings, Ciaran J (2013) Re-establishing contact: A profile of clients attending the health promotion unit - needle exchange at Merchants Quay Ireland. Dublin: Merchants Quay Ireland.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. (2013) HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe 2012. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Scientific Advisory Committee of the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. (2012) Guidelines for the emergency management of injuries (including needlestick and sharps injuries, sexual exposure and human bites) where there is a risk of transmission of bloodborne viruses and other infectious diseases. Dublin: Health Protection Surveillance Centre and Health Service Executive.

World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. (2012) HIV/AIDS country profile 2011: Ireland. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.

Irish Needle Exchange Forum. (2011) Overdose prevention and response. Dublin: Irish Needle Exchange Forum.

Northern Ireland. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. Public Health Information and Research Branch. (2010) Statistics from the Northern Ireland Needle and Syringe Exchange Scheme: 1 April 2009–31 March 2010. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.

MSIC Evaluation Committee. (2003) Final report on the evaluation of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Sydney: MSIC Evaluation Committee.

Cox, Gemma and Lawless, Marie (2000) Making contact: an evaluation of a syringe exchange. Dublin: Merchants Quay Project.

Trinity College Dublin. Department of Community Health and General Practice. Long, Jean and Allwright, Shane and Barry, Joseph and Reaper-Reynolds, Sheilagh and Thornton, Lelia and Bradley, Fiona (2000) Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV in Irish prisoners, part II: prevalence and risk in committal prisoners 1999. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Mullen, Louise and Barry, Joseph (1999) Needle exchange in the Eastern Health Board region: an analysis of first time attendees, 1990-1997. Dublin: Eastern Health Board.

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 38 - Drug treatment programmes policy (injecting rooms) [27046/15]. (09 Jul 2015)

[Oireachtas] Dail Eireann debate. Written answer 161 - Drug treatment programmes policy (injecting centres) [27801/15]. (08 Jul 2015)

[Oireachtas] National drugs strategy [Safe injecting] [49759/12]. (13 Nov 2012)


Preston, Andrew and Derricott, Jon (2007) The safer injecting handbook. Dorset: Exchange Supplies .

Pates, Richard and McBride, Andrew and Arnold, Karin, eds. (2005) Injecting illicit drugs. Oxford: Blackwell .

Derricott, Jon and Preston, Andrew and Hunt, Neil (1998) The safer injecting briefing: an easy to use comprehensive reference guide to promoting safer injecting. Liverpool: HIT .

Conference or Workshop Item

Smyth, Bobby P (2011) Clinical research in the addiction service: the lows and the highs. In: Irish health research:collaboration and partnership for progress a one day seminar, 11 February, Dr. Steevens' Hospital.


Robinson, Janet (2007) The adoption of a harm reduction philosophy: the development and operation of a needle exchange programme in one former health board area. Masters thesis, Trinity College Dublin.


(2014) Steroid users accessing needle exchange services. Anabolic steroids & associated drugs: evidence from the United Kingdom.

Teaching Resource

Brennan, Rebekah ‘IDUHED’: An ethno pharmacological study of the injecting use of human enhancement drugs.

FactSheet (2015) Safer disposal information. Dublin:


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2019) Needle and syringe programmes overview. URL:

This list was generated on Mon Jan 25 03:31:07 2021 GMT.

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