Home > ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries.

Thompson, Paul M and Jahanshad, Neda and Ching, Christopher R K and Salminen, Lauren E and Thomopoulos, Sophia I and Bright, Joanna and Baune, Bernhard T and Bertolín, Sara and Bralten, Janita and Bruin, Willem B and Bülow, Robin and Chen, Jian and Chye, Yann and Dannlowski, Udo and de Kovel, Carolien G F and Donohoe, Gary and Eyler, Lisa T and Faraone, Stephen V and Favre, Pauline and Filippi, Courtney A and Frodl, Thomas and Garijo, Daniel and Gil, Yolanda and Grabe, Hans J and Grasby, Katrina L and Hajek, Tomas and Han, Laura K M and Hatton, Sean N and Hilbert, Kevin and Ho, Tiffany C and Holleran, Laurena and Homuth, Georg and Hosten, Norbert and Houenou, Josselin and Ivanov, Iliyan and Jia, Tianye and Kelly, Sinead and Klein, Marieke and Kwon, Jun Soo and Laansma, Max A and Leerssen, Jeanne and Lueken, Ulrike and Nunes, Abraham and Neill, Joseph O' and Opel, Nils and Piras, Fabrizio and Piras, Federica and Postema, Merel C and Pozzi, Elena and Shatokhina, Natalia and Soriano-Mas, Carles and Spalletta, Gianfranco and Sun, Daqiang and Teumer, Alexander and Tilot, Amanda K and Tozzi, Leonardo and van der Merwe, Celia and Van Someren, Eus J W and van Wingen, Guido A and Völzke, Henry and Walton, Esther and Wang, Lei and Winkler, Anderson M and Wittfeld, Katharina and Wright, Margaret J and Yun, Je-Yeon and Zhang, Guohao and Zhang-James, Yanli and Adhikari, Bhim M and Agartz, Ingrid and Aghajani, Moji and Aleman, André and Althoff, Robert R and Altmann, Andre and Garavan, Hugh and al., et (2020) ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries. Translational Psychiatry, 10, (1), . doi: 10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1.

External website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC70839...

This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data).

These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.

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