Home > Incidence and risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Sadlier, C and O'Connell, Sarah and Kelleher, M and Bergin, C (2019) Incidence and risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. International Journal of STD & AIDS , 30 , (5) , pp. 472-478.

Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and availability of pneumococcal vaccines. The aim of this study was to measure temporal trends in incidence and risk factors for IPD (defined as culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or both) in a cohort of HIV-positive patients attending an ambulatory HIV care centre in Dublin, Ireland over a 10-year period 2006-2015. Incidence of IPD was determined as events per 100,000 person-years' follow-up. Poisson regression was used to assess linear trend in incidence over time.

A nested case-control study (four controls per case) was undertaken to assess risk factors for IPD. Forty-seven episodes of IPD were identified in 42 HIV-positive individuals (median [IQR] age 38 years [33-43], 69% male, 86% injecting drug users (IDUs), median CD4 T-cell count 213 cells/mm) over 16,008 person-years' follow-up (overall incidence rate 293/100,000 person-years). Three patients had two episodes and one patient had three episodes of IPD during the study period. The overall case fatality rate was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4-24%). The incidence of IPD per 100,000 person-years decreased from 728 (95% CI, 455-1002), to 242 (95% CI, 120-365) to 82 (95% CI, 40-154) in calendar periods 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015, respectively (p < 0.01 for linear trend). Older age (p = 0.02), male gender (p = 0.05), detectable HIV viral load (p < 0.01) and non-receipt of pneumococcal vaccine (p = 0.03) were associated with IPD while IDU as risk of acquisition of HIV was of borderline significance (p = 0.06). HIV-positive individuals remain at greater risk of IPD compared to the general population. Pneumococcal vaccine should be seen as a priority to ensure optimal protection for HIV-positive patients.


Item Type:Article
Date:April 2019
Page Range:pp. 472-478
Volume:30
Number:5
EndNote:View
Related URLs:
Subjects:G Health and disease > Disorder by cause > Communicable disease > HIV
J Health care, prevention and rehabilitation > Health care delivery
T Demographic characteristics > Person who injects drugs (Intravenous / injecting)
VA Geographic area > Europe > Ireland

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