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Health Protection Surveillance Centre. (2013) Health Protection Surveillance Centre annual report 2011. Dublin: Health Protection Surveillance Centre.

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P.41 Invasive Group A Streptococcal disease
Risk factors associated with iGAS disease included age ≥65 years (n=22), presence of skin and wound lesions (n=20), diabetes mellitus (n=8), intravenous drug use (IVDU) (n=7), malignancy (n=6), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (n=1), childbirth (n=5), injecting drug use (n=1), varicella infection (n=3), alcoholism (n=1) and steroid use (n=1).

P.82 Hepatitis B
The prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population in Ireland is low (less than 1%) and most cases fall into defined risk groups such as people with multiple sexual partners, household or sexual contacts of known cases, injecting drug users and people who were born in countries with intermediate (2-7%) or high (>8%) hepatitis B endemicity.

P.85 Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. The hepatitis C virus is primarily transmitted through sharing contaminated equipment when injecting drugs or through receipt of unscreened blood or blood products. Sexual, occupational and perinatal transmission can also occur but are less common.

The overall prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in Ireland is comparable to other Northern European countries, and is estimated to be between 0.5 and 1.2%. The prevalence in the general population is low and most cases fall into defined risk groups such as injecting drug users, people who received unscreened blood or blood products in the past and people who were born in hepatitis C endemic countries.

Data on most likely risk factor were available for 59% of cases (n=741). The most common risk factors reported were injecting drug use (83%, n=616), being an asylum seeker/born in an endemic country (6%, n=43), sexual exposure (3%, n=24), receipt of blood or blood products (3%, n=19), vertical transmission (1%, n=11), tattoo/body piercing procedures (1%, n=6) and accidental needlestick exposure (0.5%, n=4)…

P.87 HIV and AIDS
Probable route of transmission
The predominant route of transmission of HIV in Ireland in 2011 was sex between men. Heterosexuals accounted for 34% and Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) for 5%. There were three cases where the route of transmission was identified as Mother to Child transmission (MTCT). The probable route of transmission was unknown or unreported for 56 cases (17.5%).

Injecting Drug Users (IDUs): Of the 16 IDU cases,
• 13 were men and 3 were women.
• Median age was 37 years (range: 22 to 48 years).
• 50% were born in Ireland, 19% were born in Central and Eastern Europe and 13% were born in sub- Saharan Africa.
• 63% were White (50% were white Irish and 13% were white other).
• Where CD4 count was reported (13 of 16 cases; 81.3%), 85% of IDUs in 2011 were diagnosed late including 62% who were severely immunecompromised.
• Three IDUs (19%) were diagnosed with an AIDS defining illness at the time of their HIV diagnosis.

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