Home > Manganese toxicity with ephedrone abuse manifesting as parkinsonism: a case report.

Iqbal, M and Monaghan, Thomas S and Redmond, Janice (2012) Manganese toxicity with ephedrone abuse manifesting as parkinsonism: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 6, (1), p. 52. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-52..

External website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC32924...

Introduction: Neurologic consequences of manganese toxicity have been recognized since 1837. A new form of presumed manganese poisoning has been reported in drug addicted persons from Eastern Europe and the Baltic states who have intravenously injected self-prepared methcathinone hydrochloride (ephedrone), which is synthesized from pseudoephedrine hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as a potent oxidant. This clinical syndrome is under-recognized in Western Europe and there are no reported cases in the literature from Ireland.

Case presentation: We report a 30-year-old Eastern European man who presented with a two-year history of gait disturbance. A neurological assessment revealed features of parkinsonism which included hypophonia, hypomimia, mild bradykinesia and rigidity with no resting tremor. He held his arms slightly abducted from his sides when walking, with a reduction in arm swing. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed a high signal on T1 in the globus pallidus and serum manganese levels were raised. He had no response to levodopa.

Conclusion: Manganism secondary to ephedrone abuse causing parkinsonism has emerged in Western Europe in recent years due to mass immigration and often remains unrecognized. This paper highlights the various features of this rare cause of parkinsonism and aids in its recognition and subsequent diagnosis. Neurologists in Western Europe will increasingly encounter such patients.

Item Type
Publication Type
Irish-related, Open Access, Article
Drug Type
CNS stimulants
Intervention Type
Harm reduction, Screening / Assessment
Identification #
doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-52.
Page Range
p. 52

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