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Home > Comparison of treatments for cocaine use disorder among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bentzley, Brandon S and Han, Summer S and Neuner, Sophie and Humphreys, Keith and Kampman, Kyle M and Halpern, Casey H (2021) Comparison of treatments for cocaine use disorder among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open, 4, (5), e218049. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8049.

External website: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/f...

Importance: In the US and the United Kingdom, cocaine use is the second leading cause of illicit drug overdose death. Psychosocial treatments for cocaine use disorder are limited, and no pharmacotherapy is approved for use in the US or Europe.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the intention-to-treat logarithm of the odds ratio (OR) of having a negative urinalysis result for the presence of cocaine metabolites at the end of each treatment period compared with baseline. The hypothesis, which was formulated after data collection, was that no treatment category would have a significant association with objective reductions in cocaine use.

Results: A total of 157 studies comprising 402 treatment groups and 15 842 participants were included. Excluding other therapies, the largest treatment groups across all studies were psychotherapy (mean [SD] number of participants, 40.04 [36.88]) and contingency management programs (mean [SD] number of participants, 37.51 [25.51]). Only contingency management programs were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having a negative test result for the presence of cocaine (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.62-2.80), and this association remained significant in all sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, contingency management programs were associated with reductions in cocaine use among adults. Research efforts and policies that align with this treatment modality may benefit those who actively use cocaine and attenuate societal burdens.


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