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Comiskey, Catherine M and Hyland, John and Hyland, Pauline (2016) Parenthood, child care, and heroin use: outcomes after three years. Substance Use & Misuse , 51 , (12) , pp. 1600-1609.

Cannon, Aoife (2016) Psychological health of heroin-dependent teenagers in treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 58, Summer 2016 , pp. 23-24.

Hearne, Evelyn and Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelius and Van Hout, Marie Claire and McVeigh, Jim (2016) A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy. Harm Reduction Journal , 13 , (14) .

Smyth, Bobby P and Ducray, Kevin and Cullen, Walter (2016) Changes in psychological well-being among heroin-dependent adolescents during psychologically supported opiate substitution treatment. Early Intervention in Psychiatry , Early online .

Lyons, Suzi (2016) Overdose risk among heroin users: a pilot prevention study. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 56, Winter 2016 , pp. 19-20.

Horan, John Aidan and Deasy, Conor and Henry, Kieran and O'Brien, Declan and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2015) Overdose risk perceptions and experience of overdose among heroin users in Cork, Ireland. Preliminary results from a pilot overdose prevention study. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 17 , (5) , pp. 19-26.

Dines, Alison M and Wood, David M and Yates, Christopher and Heyerdahl, Fridtjof and Hovda, Knut Erik and Giraudon, Isabelle and Sedefov, Roumen and Dargan, Paul I (2015) Acute recreational drug and new psychoactive substance toxicity in Europe: 12 months data collection from the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN). Clinical Toxicology , 53 , (9) , pp. 893-900.

Mayock, Paula and Cronly, Jennifer and Clatts, Michael C (2015) The risk environment of heroin initiation: young women, intimate partners, and “drug relationships”. Substance Use & Misuse , 50 , (6) , pp. 771-782.

Connolly, Johnny (2014) Forensic Science Laboratory analyses street-level heroin and cocaine. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 50, Summer 2014 , pp. 22-23.

Degenhardt, Louisa and Charlson, Fiona and Mathers, Bradley and Hall, Wayne D and Flaxman, Abraham D and Johns, Nicole and Vos, Theo (2014) The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Addiction , Online .

Boyle, Michelle and Carroll, Lynn and Clarke, Karen and Clarke, Paula and Coyle, Hugh J and English, Henry and Goff, Miriam and Kane, Eugene and Killoran, Sarah and O'Connor, Kristen (2014) What's the deal? Trends in Irish street-level heroin and cocaine 2010-2012. Drug Testing and Analysis , 6 , (9) , pp. 953-958.

Keane, Lisa and Ducray, Kevin and Smyth, Bobby P (2014) Psychological characteristics of heroin-dependent and non-opioid-substance-dependent adolescents in community drug treatment services. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse , 23 , (4) , p. 205.

Mayock, Paula and Sheridan, Sarah (2013) At home in prison? Women and the homelessness– incarceration nexus. Irish Probation Journal , 10 , pp. 118-140.

Comiskey, Catherine (2013) A 3 year national longitudinal study comparing drug treatment outcomes for opioid users with and without children in their custodial care at intake. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 44 , (1) , pp. 90-96.

Barrio, Gregorio and Montanari, Linda and Bravo, Maria and Guarita, Bruno and de La Fuente, Luis and Pulido, Jose and Vicente, Julian (2013) Trends of heroin use and heroin injection epidemics in Europe: findings from the EMCDDA treatment demand indicator (TDI). Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 45 , (1) , pp. 19-30.

Somers, CJ and O'Connor, John J (2012) Retrospective study of outcomes, for patients admitted to a Drug Treatment Centre Board. Irish Medical Journal , 105 , (9) , pp. 295-298.

Griffiths, Paul and Mountenay, Jane and Laniel, Laurent (2012) Understanding changes in heroin availability in Europe over time: emerging evidence for a slide, a squeeze and a shock. Addiction , 107 , (9) , pp. 1539-1540.

Stokes, Siobhan (2012) Quantitative evidence of a heroin drought. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 40, Winter 2011 , pp. 21-23.

Harris, Julie and McElrath, Karen (2012) Methadone as social control: institutionalized stigma and the prospect of recovery. Qualitative Health Research , 22 , (6) , pp. 810-824.

Smyth, Bobby P and Fagan, John and Kernan, Kathy (2012) Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 42 , (1) , pp. 35-44.

Barry, David and Syed, Hussain and Smyth, Bobby P (2012) The journey into injecting heroin use. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 14 , (3) , pp. 89-100.

Ducray, Kevin and Darker, Catherine D and Smyth, Bobby P (2012) Situational and psycho-social factors associated with relapse following residential detoxification in a population of Irish opioid dependent patients. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 29 , (2) , pp. 72-79.

Comiskey, Catherine and Stapleton, Robert and Kelly, Paul (2012) Ongoing cocaine and benzodiazepine use: effects on acquisitive crime committal rates amongst opiate users in treatment. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy , 19 , (5) , pp. 406-414.

McCabe, Ian and Acree, Michael and O'Mahony, Finbarr and McCabe, Jenny and Kenny, Jean and Twyford, Jennifer and Quigley, Karen and McGlanaghy, Edel (2011) Male street prostitution in Dublin: a psychological analysis. Journal of Homosexuality , 58 , (8) , pp. 998-1021.

Cox, Gemma and Comiskey, Catherine (2011) Does concurrent cocaine use compromise 1-year treatment outcomes for opiate users? Substance Use & Misuse , 46 , (9) , pp. 1206-1216.

McDonnell, Anne and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2011) Heroin detoxification-seeking, a grounded theory of process and practicalities. Grounded Theory Review , 10 , (1) , pp. 17-41.

Lyons, Suzi (2011) Updated Cochrane review of heroin maintenance treatment. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 39, Autumn 2011 , pp. 18-19.

Braden, Marina and McGowan, Iain W and McLaughlin, Derek Francis and McKenna, Hugh and Keeney, Sinead and Quinn, Breige (2011) Users, carers and professionals experiences of treatment and care for heroin dependency: implications for practice. A preliminary study. Journal of Substance Use , 16 , (6) , pp. 452-463.

Ducray, Kevin and Byrne, Patricia and Burke, Clare and Smyth, Bobby P (2011) A comparison of the drug use patterns, measures of needs and quality of life of methadone-maintained patients using and not using cocaine. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , 13 , (3) , pp. 27-38.

McKeown, Paul (2010) Anthrax identified in heroin users in Scotland. EPI-Insight , 11 , (2) .

Barry, Joseph and Ward, Mary and Cotter, S and MacDiarmada, J and Hannan, M and Sweeney, Brion and Grant, KA and McKeown, P (2009) Botulism in injecting drug users, Dublin, Ireland, November-December 2008. Eurosurveillance , 14 , (1) .

O'Connor, Gabrielle and McMahon, Geraldine (2008) Complications of heroin abuse. European Journal of Emergency Medicine , 15 , (2) , pp. 104-106.

Donovan, Anne Marie (2008) The supply of heroin to Europe - update. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 28, Winter 2008 , pp. 7-8.

White, Emma and Comiskey, Catherine (2007) Heroin epidemics, treatment and ODE modelling. Mathematical Biosciences , 208 , (1) , pp. 312-24.

Keane, Martin (2007) Families coping with heroin use. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 22, Summer 2007 , pp. 20-21.

Connolly, Johnny (2006) Cocaine-related prosecutions eclipse those for heroin. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 19, Autumn 2006 , pp. 3-4.

Sinclair, Hamish and Long, Jean (2006) Health Service Executive facilitates workshop on cocaine. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 18, Summer 2006 , p. 11.

Long, Jean and Keenan, Eamon and Grogan, Loretto and Mullen, Louise and Barry, Joseph and Sinclair, Hamish (2006) HIV infection among heroin users and area of residence. Irish Medical Journal , 99 , (8) , pp. 230-233.

Pike, Brigid (2005) Government reports progress on new drug initiatives. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 16, Winter 2005 , pp. 14-15.

Long, Jean and Kelly, Fionnola (2005) Heroin misuse in Athlone and Portlaoise. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 14, Summer 2005 , pp. 7-8.

Keane, Martin (2005) Heroin - the mental roof over your head: Links between homelessness and drug use. Drugnet Ireland , Issue 13, Spring 2005 , pp. 5-6.

Higgins, Kathryn and Kilpatrick, R (2005) The impact of paramilitary violence against a heroin-user community in Nothern Ireland: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Drug Policy , 16 , pp. 334-342.

Sporer, Karl A (2003) Strategies for preventing heroin overdose. British Medical Journal , 326 , (7386) , pp. 442-444.

Gervin, Maurice and Hughes, Rita and Bamford, L and Smyth, Bobby P and Keenan, Eamon (2001) Heroin smoking by 'chasing the dragon' in young opiate users in Ireland. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 20 , (4) , pp. 297-300.

McElrath, Karen and McEvoy, Kieran (2001) Heroin as Evil: ecstasy users' perceptions about heroin. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 8 , (2) , pp. 177-189.

Smyth, Bobby P and O'Brien, Mary and Barry, Joseph (2000) Trends in treated opiate misuse in Dublin: the emergence of chasing the dragon. Addiction , 95 , (8) , pp. 1217-1223.

Gervin, Maurice and Smith, Robert and Bamford, L and Keenan, Eamon (1998) Chasing the Dragon: experience in Ireland and associations with ecstasy. Addiction , 93 , (4) , pp. 601-602.

Butler, Shane (1991) Drug problems and drug policies in Ireland: a quarter of a century reviewed. Administration , 39 , (3) , pp. 210-233.

O'Mahony, Paul (1990) Abstinence in treated and untreated opiate abusers: a study of a prison sample. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine , 7 , (2) , pp. 121-123.

O'Connor, JJ and Stafford-Johnson, S. and Kelly, Michael G (1988) A review of the characteristics and treatment progress of 45 pregnant opiate addicts attending the Irish National Drug Advisory and Treatment Centre over a two year period. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 157 , (5) , pp. 146-149.

Kelly, FD and Cullen, Barry and Bury, Gerard and Dean, Geoffrey (1988) The rise and fall of heroin use in an inner city area of Dublin. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 157 , (2) , pp. 35-38.

Dean, Geoffrey and O'Hare, Aileen and O'Connor, Aideen and Kelly, M and Kelly, Grainne (1987) The opiate epidemic in Dublin: are we over the worst? Irish Medical Journal , 80 , (5) , pp. 139-142.

O'Kelly, Fergus Desmond and O'Doherty, Kevin and Bury, Gerard and O'Callaghan, Eadbhard (1986) Heroin abuse in an inner city practice. Irish Medical Journal , 79 , (4) , pp. 85-87.

Raftery, Mary and Toibin, Colm and O'Kane, Maggie (1984) The heroin bushfire. Magill , pp. 7-15.

O'Mahony, Paul and Smith, E. (1984) Some personality characteristics of imprisoned heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 13 , (3) , pp. 255-265.

Ryan, WJ and Arthurs, Yvonne and Kelly, Michael G and Fielding, JF (1982) Heroin abuse with hepatitis B virus associated chronic active hepatitis in a twelve year old child. Irish Medical Journal , 75 , (5) , p. 166.

Raftery, Mary (1982) Heroin: the sweet dream of death. In Dublin , pp. 18-24.

News

[thejournal.ie : The 42] 'Heroin ripped through Dublin... And this place we loved was at the heart of the city’s epidemic'. (31 Dec 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac ‘High’ heroin use by young in regional cities. (30 Dec 2017)

[Evening Echo] , Burke, Roisin 600 heroin addicts in Cork as the debate over needle bins continues. (19 Dec 2017)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Leonard, Victoria Drug Fentanyl 100 times more powerful than morphine is killer, warns Northern Ireland coroner. (22 Sep 2017)

[Irish Times] , Freyne, Patrick ‘We marched on four dealers that night’: Dublin’s anti-drug wars. (16 Sep 2017)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Campbell, Brett Class tramadol with heroin and cocaine, says Northern Ireland medical expert. (01 Aug 2017)

[Irish Times] , Gallagher, Conor Cocaine use rise as economy returns is one of challenges for State lab. (03 Jul 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Ireland's drug problem: rise of killer synthetic opioids. (07 Jun 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , Brophy, Daragh 'It takes me away from this world for the day': Life as a homeless drug-user on the streets of Dublin. (13 May 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , Ó Fátharta, Conall Half of those treated for problem drug use on heroin. (11 May 2017)

[Independent.ie] Fall in number of drug users seeking first-time help for addiction. (11 May 2017)

[thejournal.ie] , MacNamee, Garreth A number of city centre overdoses linked to gang's toxic drug mixing in flats complex. (01 May 2017)

[Irish Times] , Roche, Barry Strategies to tackle drug abuse must come from communities, Cork protest told. (08 Apr 2017)

[Independent.ie] , Egan, Barry Decriminalise heroin to save lives - Philly. (29 Jan 2017)

[Irish Examiner] , Baker, Noel Study backs screening heroin users for alcohol issues. (27 Dec 2016)

[Independent.ie] , Cusack, Jim The war on drugs is lost... so what do we do now? (13 Nov 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Hauls of heroin and powerful guns surged significantly last year. (07 Oct 2016)

[Irish Times] , O'Halloran, Marie ‘Drug-driving’ test to focus on cocaine, cannabis, heroin. (28 Sep 2016)

[Herald.ie] , O'Keeffe, Alan Fears grow that powerful 'super heroin' will cause more deaths on city streets. (14 Sep 2016)

, Brophy, Daragh How would a Dublin drug injecting room operate? We spoke to the boss of the Sydney centre. (03 Sep 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Gardaí fear further deaths as super-strong synthetic drug spreads. (02 Sep 2016)

[thejournal.ie] , Murphy, Peter 'The whole thing took five minutes': young woman talks about saving the life of a heroin addict. (01 Sep 2016)

[Herald.ie] , Foy, Ken and Grant, Martin and Larkin, Laura Gardai vow crackdown on 'super-heroin' smugglers. (12 Aug 2016)

[thejournal.ie] , Sheils McNamee, Michael Heroin the number one drug for hospital admissions as 'legal high' use grows. (04 Aug 2016)

[Independent.ie] Study shows dramatic increase in heroin deaths. (01 Jun 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac EU police flags hike in massive heroin hauls. (06 Apr 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Just 3% of heroin in Ireland is seized, says UN. (23 Feb 2016)

[Independent.ie] , Larkin, Laura and Dillon, Fiona We've seen children aged 9 taking cocaine and heroin at 11, drugs worker reveals. (25 Jan 2016)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Landmark Cabinet decision backs drug-injecting centres. (16 Dec 2015)

[thejournal.ie] “No matter where you live, you probably have somebody injecting heroin pretty near you”. (15 Dec 2015)

[Independent.ie] , Rooney, Declan Heroin 'is now a major problem in Galway'. (02 Dec 2015)

[Independent.ie] , Courtney, Lorraine Plans for heroin injection centres a step in right direction. (06 Nov 2015)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Eilish Opening injection rooms 'not simple', says Varadkar. (03 Nov 2015)

[RTE News] Should drug addicts have a safe place to inject? (04 Oct 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Baker, Noel Clinic implants State’s first opiate ‘blocker’. (06 Sep 2015)

, Sheils McNamee, Michael Heroin on the rise: 22 mothers taken into drug facility with their children. (15 Jul 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Heroin dealing in Cork to be targeted. (16 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Heroin swoop impact on supply ‘will be significant’. (11 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac DRUGS CRISIS: rising drug potency poses greater danger. (05 Jun 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Drug consumption centres reduce risk of overdose. (05 Jun 2015)

[Medical Independent] Availability of antidote to heroin-related overdoses welcomed. (21 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Heroin users to be given antidote. (20 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] Coroner notes rise in heroin deaths in Cork. (19 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Five heroin gangs operating in Cork are mainly users. (19 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Garda: Heroin addicts need treatment, not jail time. (15 May 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Needle exchange for 13,700 drug users. (14 May 2015)

[Wexford People] , Hayden, Esther Dramatic increase in heroin use in Wexford town. (24 Mar 2015)

[Dublin People] , Fetherstonhaugh, Neil Minister calls for drug plan ‘now’. (13 Mar 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , Connolly, Shaun Fight against drug abuse needs dedicated minister, says Sinn Fein. (06 Mar 2015)

[Herald.ie] , Fegan, Joyce Radical legislation to allow for supervised injecting centres for heroin users. (16 Feb 2015)

[Limerick Post] , Jacques, Alan Violent undercurrent to Limerick City’s drug problem. (12 Feb 2015)

[thejournal.ie] ‘Worse now than the heroin epidemic of the 80s’ – Christy Burke on drugs in Dublin. (29 Jan 2015)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac No rogue heroin circulating in Cork, tests show. (12 Dec 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Surge in the use of heroin across Cork. (06 Oct 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Another look at how alcohol can be more dangerous than heroin. (20 Sep 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Drug contains ‘highly toxic’ chemicals. (20 Sep 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Cionnaith, Fiachra 10k treated for substance abuse in 3 months. (15 Aug 2014)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom A quarter of all addicts are outside the capital. (27 Jul 2014)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Ireland has third highest drug-related fatalities. (28 May 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Cocaine and heroin involved in majority of serious drugs cases before courts. (05 May 2014)

[BBC News Northern Ireland] , Fitzpatrick, Michael Northern Ireland needle exchange scheme numbers rise 50% in four years. (16 Apr 2014)

[Independent.ie] , O'Connor, Niall and Griffin, Sam Employers could be held liable for drink-driving staff. (21 Mar 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Column: Legislation changes our drugs landscape – but it isn’t a complete solution. (20 Mar 2014)

[thejournal.ie] Column: Philip Seymour Hoffman’s death challenges our cosy stereotypes about addicts. (06 Feb 2014)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom Explosion in new 'designer drugs' sparks fears for safety of users. (25 Dec 2013)

, Fleming, David Ireland must act to combat its growing heroin problem. (03 Dec 2013)

[Independent.ie] , Brady, Tom Gang 'supermarket' with shelves of drugs and guns found by gardai. (28 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire Fighting back against drug’s stranglehold. (19 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Sullivan, Claire Special report day 1: The real story behind heroin use. (18 Nov 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Two thirds of 4,200 overdoses intentional. (11 Nov 2013)

[breakingnews.ie] Online survey highlights drug use among 'thirty somethings'. (10 Nov 2013)

[The Kerryman] Heroin returning to Tralee streets. (30 Oct 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Riordan, Sean Spike in crime linked to heroin use. (22 Oct 2013)

[rte.ie] Rise in addiction to cocktail of alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepine. (14 Oct 2013)

[thejournal.ie] FBI shuts down site that sold $80m worth of drugs, hitmen services and other illegal items. (02 Oct 2013)

[thejournal.ie] Drug use outside Dublin continues to grow, says report. (06 Sep 2013)

[Independent.ie] , Cusack, Jim Two dozen for court after undercover operation. (30 Jun 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Lucey, Anne Heroin blamed for eight deaths in Kerry town in two years. (01 Jun 2013)

Health Research Board. Alcohol and Drug Research Unit. [Health Research Board] New report reveals the latest drug trends in Europe. (28 May 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Stack, Sarah 75% of Dublin heroin addicts also hooked on other drugs, study finds. (28 May 2013)

The Economist. [The Economist] The Trainspotting generation: the government is undermining a successful treatment system. (UK). (22 Mar 2013)

[Independent.ie] , O'Regan, Eilish Alcohol is now responsible for 25pc of all drug-related deaths. (18 Feb 2013)

[irishhealth.com] , Condon, Deborah What drug affects arousal in men? (19 Jan 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , O'Keeffe, Cormac Heroin haul second biggest in State’s history, say gardaí. (19 Jan 2013)

[Irish Examiner] , Black, Fergus Doctor prescribed strong tranquilliser to teen heroin addict. (09 Jan 2013)

[RTE News] Two Cork deaths linked to strong batch of heroin. (05 Oct 2012)

[Medical Independent] , Fogarty, James The remedy as the problem. (04 Oct 2012)

[Belfast Telegraph] , Kilpatrick, Chris Cut-price heroin is now commonplace in Northern Ireland, says Coroner. (03 Aug 2012)

[Irish Medical Times] Surge expected in liver cirrhosis cases. (19 Apr 2012)

[RTE News] Sinn Féin wants refocus on drugs crisis. (16 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , Gantly, Dara Ireland has most users of heroin in EU. (15 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , Culliton, Gary Painkillers ‘kill more people than heroin and cocaine’. (10 Nov 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] Prescribing heroin reduces abuse of the drug. (08 Jul 2011)

[Irish Medical Times] , O'Sullivan, Cathal Out on a limb — heroin users beyond the pale. (26 May 2011)

Irish Needle Exchange Forum. [Irish Needle Exchange Forum] Heroin alert guidelines. (16 Dec 2010)

[European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction & Health Research Board] Latest drug trends across Europe. (06 Nov 2008)

[Sunday Independent] Report finds methadone contributes to more deaths than heroin. (27 Jan 2008)

[British Medical Journal] Prescribing heroin in Europe. (17 Jan 2008)

[Scottish Executive] Scottish prevention campaign says smoking heroin just as dangerous as injecting. (15 Aug 2006)

[BBC News Online] Global meth users outnumber cocaine and heroin users combined. (11 May 2006)

Report

Health Research Board. (2016) National Drug-Related Deaths Index 2004 to 2014 data. Dublin: Health Research Board.

O'Heaire, Gary (2016) Clondalkin Tús Nua street based harm reduction service activity report 2011 - 2015. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

O'Gorman, Aileen and Driscoll, Alan and Moore, Kerri and Roantree, Doireann (2016) Outcomes: drug harms, policy harms, poverty and inequality. Dublin: Clondalkin Drug and Alcohol Task Force.

Costello, Liza (2014) Travellers in the Irish prison system: A qualitative study. Dublin: Irish Penal Reform Trust.

Drummond, Anne and Codd, Mary and Donnelly, N and McCausland, D and Mehegan, J and Daly, L and Kelleher, Cecily (2014) Study on the prevalence of drug use,including intravenous drug use, and blood-borne viruses among the Irish prisoner population. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

Drummond, Anne and Codd, Mary (2014) Drugs and health in Irish prisons 2011. A report for prisoners. National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2013) EU drug markets report: a strategic analysis. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

O'Heaire, Gary (2013) Cracking on: a harm reduction report. Dublin: The Bawnogue Youth and Family Support Group.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Europol. (2013) EMCDDA–Europol 2012 Annual report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA (New drugs in Europe, 2012. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Campus.ie. (2013) The National student survey 2013. Dublin: Campus.ie.

Van Hout, Marie Claire and Bingham, Tim (2012) Family and individual experiences of self detoxification processes in the mid west. Limerick: Mid West Regional Drugs Task Force.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2012) EMCDDA trend report for the evaluation of the 2005–12 EU drugs strategy. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Strang, John and Groshkova, Teodora and Metrebian, Nicola (2012) New heroin-assisted treatment. Recent evidence and current practices of supervised injectable heroin treatment in Europe and beyond. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Strang, John (2011) Recovery-oriented drug treatment. An interim report. London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

McDonnell, Anne and Van Hout, Marie Claire (2010) A grounded theory of detoxification-seeking among heroin users in south east Ireland. Waterford: Waterford Institute of Technology.

Health Promotion Unit, Department of Health and Children. (2008) Know the facts about drugs. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2008) Monitoring the supply of heroin to Europe. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

Duggan, Carmel (2007) The experiences of families seeking support in coping with heroin use. Dublin: Stationery Office.

McKeown, Kieran and Fitzgerald, Grace (2006) Experiences and attitudes of early school leavers: a survey of early school leavers in Ballymun & Mayo. Dublin: EQUAL Youth Project.

McElwee, Niall and Monaghan, Grainne (2005) Darkness on the edge of town: an exploratory study of heroin misuse in Athlone and Portlaoise. Athlone: Athlone Institute of Technology, Centre for Child & Youth Care Learning.

Reaper-Reynolds, Sheilagh and Williams, James and Wolfe, Esther and Keane, Rory (2005) Understanding substances and substance use: a handbook for teachers. Kildare: South Western Area Health Board.

Cullen, Barry (2003) Community and drugs: a discussion of the context and consequences of community drug problems in Ireland, 1976-2001. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin, Addiction Research Centre.

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McElrath, Karen (2002) Prevalence of problem heroin use in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Drug & Alcohol Information & Research Unit, Department of Health, Social Services & Public Safety.

McElrath, Karen (2001) Heroin use in Northern Ireland: a qualitative study into heroin users' lifestyles, experiences, and risk behaviours (1997-1999). Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.

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Lenke, Leif and Olsson, B (1995) Suggestions for further analyses of drug-related law enforcement data. Heroin seizures. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Lenke, Leif and Olsson, Borje (1995) 22nd meeting of experts in epidemiology (Strasbourg, 4-5 May 1995). Drug-related law enforcement data proposal for further analysis of heroin seizures. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

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Dean, Geoffrey and O'Kelly, Fergus Desmond and Cullen, Barry A report on the history, extent and effects of heroin use in the electoral ward, Merchants Quay F 1979 - 1985. Dublin: Medico-Social Research Board.

Evidence resource

Coomber, Ross and Moyle, Leah . (2017) The changing shape of street-level heroin and crack supply in England: commuting, holidaying and cuckooing drug dealers across ‘county lines’. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. The British Journal of Criminology, azx068 https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azx068

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[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2016) Maintenance prescribing saves lives of English heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings Bulletin (8 November 2016) 5 p.

(2016) The opiate epidemic - free access article collection. Taylor & Francis.

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2016) Clonidine trialled in new anti-relapse role for heroin dependence. Drug and Alcohol Findings Bulletin (11 April 2016)

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Strang, John and Groshkova, Teodora and Uchtenhagen, A and van den Brink, Wim and Haasen, Christian and Schechter, Martin T and Lintzeris, Nicholas and Bell, James and Pirona, Alessandro and Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia and Simon, Roland and Metrebian, Nicola . (2015) Heroin on trial: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of diamorphine-prescribing as treatment for refractory heroin addiction. Royal College of Psychiatry. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207 (1) 5-14. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.149195

Trautmann, Franz and Kilmer, Beau and Turnbull, Paul J [European Commission] . (2013) Further insights into aspects of the EU illicit drugs market: summaries and key findings. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. 46 p.

Neale, Joanne and Nettleton, Sarah and Pickering, Lucy . (2012) The everyday lives of recovering heroin users. London: RSA. 210 p.

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin prescribing]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 15 Jun

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin assisted treatment]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 19 Jan

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin: [Heroin overdose prevention & education]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Effectiveness Bank Bulletin, 10 Jan

[Drug and Alcohol Findings] (2012) Effectiveness Bank Bulletin. [Heroin assisted treatment]. Drug and Alcohol Findings. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 10 Jan

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. [Home Office UK] (2011) Report into the physical effects of smoking heroin/crack cocaine and the risks of infections. London: Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. 10 p.

Ferri, Marica and Davoli, Marina and Perucci, Carlo A [The Cochrane Library] . (2011) Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin‐dependent individuals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003410.pub4

Clark, Nicolas C. and Lintzeris, Nicholas and Gijsbers, Alan and Whelan, Greg and Dunlop, Adrian and Ritter, Alison and Ling, Walter W. [The Cochrane Library] . (2002) LAAM maintenance vs methadone maintenance for heroin dependence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2) DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002210

Dail Debates

[Oireachtas] Select Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality debate Vote 24 - Justice and Equality (supplementary) (continued). (20 Nov 2013)

[Oireachtas] 57. Deputy Joan Burton asked the Minister for Justice and Law Reform if his attention has been drawn to recent data from the Health Research Board pointing to an increase in heroin use. (17 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] 263. Deputy Lucinda Creighton asked the Minister for Justice and Law Reform the action he is taking to address the serious heroin problem here; [43047/10]. (16 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] 43. Deputy Jack Wall asked the Minister for Community; Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs if his attention has been drawn to recent data from the Health Research Board pointing to an increase in heroin use, particularly in centres outside of Dublin. [40623/10]. (03 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] 56. Deputy Pat Breen asked the Minister for Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs his views on the recently published report... which notes that heroin use is in the increase. [39341/10]. (03 Nov 2010)

[Oireachtas] 319. Deputy Tom Hayes asked the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform the extent to which heroin use is a factor in crime here; his policy regarding heroin use and addiction treatment; the additional measures being taken to tackle heroin related crime; the statistics he has in relation to heroin use and under-age heroin use here including in South Tipperary. [27110/09]. (07 Jul 2009)

[Oireachtas] Minister of State at the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs (Deputy Pat Carey): I am pleased to have this opportunity to address the Dáil on the National Drugs Strategy 2001-2008 and the mid-term review of that strategy, the outcome of which was published in March 2005. (29 Nov 2007)

[Oireachtas] 100. Deputy Róisín Shortall asked the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform if he will proceed with the planned introduction of full drugs screening in jails; his further plans to reduce the flow of drugs into prisons. [22504/07]. (09 Oct 2007)

[Oireachtas] 123. Ms O'Sullivan asked the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform the progress which has been made with regard to the implementation of the commitment contained in An Agreed Programme for Government to end all heroin use in prisons here; if he will proceed with plans to introduce mandatory drug testing in prisons. [4940/05]. (16 Feb 2005)

Book

Demetrovics, Zsolt and Fountain, Jane and Kraus, Ludwig, eds. (2009) Old and new policies, theories, research methods and drug users across Europe. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers .

Robson, Philip (2009) Forbidden drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Erickson, Carlton K (2007) The science of addiction : from neurobiology to treatment. New York: W.W. Norton .

Mosher, Clayton James and Akins, Scott (2007) Drugs and drug policy : the control of consciousness alteration. Thousand Oaks Ca.: Sage .

Wechsburg, Wendee M and Kasten, Jennifer J (2007) Methadone maintenance treatment in the U.S. : a practical question and answer guide. New York: Springer .

(2006) Cocaine and heroin abuse research. New York: Nova Science Publishers .

Platt, Jerome (2006) Heroin addiction: theory, research and treatment. Vol 2, the addict, the treatment process, and social control. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (2005) Heroin addiction and the British system, Volume II: treatment and policy responses. London: Routledge .

Warburton, Hamish and Turnbull, Paul J and Hough, Mike (2005) Occasional and controlled heroin use: not a problem? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation .

O'Toole, Julie (2005) Heroin: a true story of drug addiction, hope and triumph. Dunshaughlin: Maverick House .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (2005) Heroin addiction and the British system, Volume I: origins and evolution. London: Routledge .

Stimson, Gerry V and Metrebian, Nicky (2003) Prescribing heroin: what is the evidence? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation .

Downes, Paul (2003) Living with heroin: identity, social exclusion and HIV among the Russian-speaking minorities in Estonia and Lativa. Tallin: Legal Information Centre for Human Rights .

Carnwath, Tom and Smith, Ian (2002) Heroin century. London: Routledge .

Mott, Joy, ed. Spear, HB (2002) Heroin addiction care and control: the British system 1916-1984. London: Drugscope .

Musto, David F., ed. (2002) One hundred years of heroin. Connecticut: Auburn House .

Courtwright, David T (2002) Dark paradise: a history of opiate addiction in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press .

Isralowitz, Richard (2002) Drug use, policy and management. Connecticut: Auburn House .

Espejo, Roman (2002) Drug abuse. Current controversies San Diego: Greenhaven Press .

Kintz, Pascal and Marquet, Pierre, eds. (2002) Buprenorphine therapy of opiate addiction. Totowa: Humana Press .

Connolly, Sean (2000) Need to know: heroin. Need to know series Oxford: Heinemann Library .

Jellinek Prevention. van der Meer, Ron (2000) Drug aware: every person's guide to understanding drugs. Sydney: Van der Meer Publishing .

Littell, Mary Ann (1999) Heroin drug dangers. Drug dangers Springfield: Enslow .

Uchtenhagen, A and Dobler-Mikola, A and Steffen, T and Gutzwiller, F and Blattler, R and Pfeifer, S (1999) Prescription of narcotics for heroin addicts: main results of the Swiss national cohort study. Medical prescription of narcotics; v. 1 Basel: Karger .

Community Response, Citywide. (1999) The tip of the iceberg: a report from the conference on 'Families and the Heroin Crisis: 20 years of neglect' October 1999. Dublin: Dublin Citywide Drugs Crisis Campaign and Community Response .

Inciardi, James A and Harrison, Lana D, eds. (1998) Heroin in the age of crack cocaine. Drugs, health, and social policy series; no. 6 Thousand Oaks Ca.: Sage .

Fernandez, Humberto (1998) Heroin. Center City MN: Hazelden .

Parker, Howard and Bury, Catherine and Egginton, Roy (1998) New heroin outbreaks amongst young people in England and Wales. Crime detection and prevention Police Research Group .

Bellenir, Karen, ed. (1996) Substance abuse sourcebook. Basic health-related information about the abuse of legal and illegal substance such as alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin; and including facts about substance abuse prevention strategies, intervention methods, treatment and recovery programs, and a section addressing the special problems related to substance abuse during pregnancy. Health Reference Series, v. 14 Detroit: Omingraphics .

Korf, Dirk (1995) Dutch treat: formal control and illicit drug use in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers .

Platt, Jerome (1995) Heroin addiction: theory, research and treatment. Vol. 3, Treatment advances and AIDS. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Grapendaal, Martin and Leuw, Ed and Nelen, Hans (1995) A world of opportunities: life-style and economic behaviour of heroin addicts in Amsterdam. SUNY series in new social studies on alcohol and drugs. Albany: State University of New Yotk Press .

Strang, John and Gossop, Michael, eds. (1994) Heroin addiction and drug policy: the British system. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Stephens, Richard (1991) The street addict role: a theory of heroin addiction. SUNY series in the new inequalities Albany: State University of New Yotk Press .

Faupel, Charles E (1991) Shooting dope: career patterns of hard-core heroin users. Gainesville FL: University of Florida Press .

Platt, Jerome (1986) Heroin addiction: theory, research, and treatment Vol 1 . Malabar, Fla.: Krieger .

Conference or Workshop Item

(2015) Address by Minister Aodhán Ó Ríordáin T.D. In: London School of Economics IDEAS Forum, 2 November, London.

Thesis

Higgins, Kathryn (2007) An exploration of a new heroin outbreak. PhD thesis, Queen's University Belfast.

King, Dermot (2003) Learning to fight back: exploring community responses to heroin. Masters thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth.

Video

RTE Archives. (1972) Scourge of drug addiction.

Audio

Kilroy, Della (2014) Della Kilroy’s investigative series on methadone, supported by the Mary Raftery Journalism Fund . RTE Drivetime.

Other

International Network of People who Use Drugs. (2012) Anthrax warning! Information for heroin users. INPUD, New South Wales.

FactSheet

HRB National Drugs Library. (2018) Factsheet: Opiates - the Irish situation. Dublin: HRB National Drugs Library.

This list was generated on Sun Jan 21 03:32:20 2018 GMT.